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Belarusian cuisine

Introduction
Cold and hot appetizers
First courses
  Hot dishes
  Cold soups
Meats, chicken, fish
  Meats
  Fowl dishes
  Fish dishes
Potatoes
Vegetables and mushrooms
Eggs and dairy dishes
Cereals and flour dishes
Dishes from dough
Desserts and beverages
Ritual dishes


Take fresh aurochs, and if you do not

have any, you can use the elk instead.

From 18th century

Belarusian cookbook

 

 

Introduction

 

Modern Belarusian cookery is based on old national traditions which have undergone a long historical evolution. But the main methods of traditional Belarusian cuisine are carefully kept by the people.

Common in Belarusian cuisine were dishes from potato which is called among people "the second bread". The Belarusians bring fame to their beloved potato in their verses, songs, dances. There are special potato cafes in the country where you can try various potato dishes. Potato is included into many salads, it is served together with mushrooms, meat; different pirazhki (patties) and baked puddings are made from it. The most popular among the Belarusians are traditional draniki, thick pancakes, prepared from shredded potatoes. A wide spread of potato dishes in Belarusian cuisine can be explained by natural climatic conditions of Belarus which are propitious for growing highly starched and tasty sorts of potatoes.

A lot of place in the diet of the Belarusians belongs to meat and meat products, especially to the pork and salted pork fat. One of the people's proverbs says: "There is no fish more tasty than tench, as well as there is no meat better than pork". The salted pork fat is used slightly smoked and seasoned with onions and garlic. Pyachysta is one of the traditional holiday dishes. This is boiled, stewed or roasted sucking pig, fowl or large chunks of pork or beef. Dishes prepared from meat are usually served together with potatoes or vegetables such as carrot, cabbage, black radish, peas, etc. It is characteristic that many vegetable and meat dishes are prepared in special stoneware pots.

Among dishes from fish the Belarusians prefer yushka, galki and also baked or boiled river-fish without special seasonings. In general, what concerns the most common seasonings such as onions, garlic, parsley, dill, caraway seeds, pepper, they are used very moderately in Belarusian cookery.

The choice Belarusian food are fresh, dried, salted and pickled mushrooms, and also berries such as bilberry, wild strawberries, red whortlberry, raspberries, cranberry and some others.

Of flour dishes the most popular is zacirka. Pieces of specially prepared dough are boiled in water and then poured over with milk or garnished with salted pork fat.

The Belarusians prefer to use whole milk which affected some methods of making yoghurt and the so called klinkovy cottage cheese. In Belarusian cuisine the milk is widely used for mixing in vegetable and flour dishes.

Myadukha, berezavik, kvas, beer are traditional Belarusian drinks.

Recipes introduced in this book do not expose all the dishes of national cuisine. The methods of cooking of the most popular dishes of old and modern cuisines of the Belarusians are presented here. All the recipes are intended for four helpings; the quantity of products is given in volume and in mass.

We hope that this book will be helpful to all those who are interested in national Belarusian cuisine.

 

 

Cold and hot appetizers

 

Salads are light and nutritive appetizers. There are various products used to make salads, such as vegetables, mushrooms, meat, fish, eggs, cheese, etc.

Roots and potatoes are covered with boiling water and then are boiled over slow heat in a saucepan with a tightly closed lid.

While boiling beetroot add vinegar to keep the colour (1% of its weight). Beetroots are usually boiled for 2 hours, but this process can be hastened. After an hour of boiling (without adding vinegar) pour out broth and cover beetroots with cold water. In 15 to 20 minutes the product will be ready.

Black radish should be peeled and steeped for 15 to 20 minutes in cold water.

Salads are seasoned with vegetable oil, mayonnaise, sour cream and other seasonings.

Salad seasoning: 0.5 cup vegetable oil, 0.5 cup 3% vinegar, pepper, sugar, salt.

Sauce mayonnaise: 0.5 cup vegetable oil, 1 egg's yolk, 1 tsp mustard, salt, sugar, vinegar (to taste).

Pour out yolks of eggs into china-ware, add mustard and make a smooth mixture. Add gradually, by one teaspoon, vegetable oil and mix thoroughly. Add sugar, vinegar and again mix everything.

Horseradish sauce with sour cream: 100 g horseradish, 1 cupful sour cream, 1 tsp sugar, salt.

Shred the horseradish with a shredder, mix with the sour cream, add the salt and sugar.

Pickled onions: 1 onion, 1 tsp vegetable oil, 1 tblsp vinegar, 1 bay leaf, pepper, salt, sugar.

Peel the onions, chop the larger onions and cut the smaller ones in half. Place the onions in an enamelled saucepan, add vinegar, vegetable oil, pepper, bay leaves, heat over the fire and then cool. The prepared onions should be soft but resilient.

 

POTATOES WITH BEETROOTS (AN OLD DISH)

4 potatoes, 1 beetroot, 1-2 tblsps vegetable oil, 1 onion, salt.

Separately boil the potatoes and beetroots, cool, peel and cut into small cubes. Dot the beetroots with vegetable oil, add browned onions, salt and mix with potatoes.

 

BEETROOT SALAD WITH HERRING

3 beetroots, 100 g herring, 0.5 onion, 4 tblsps mayonnaise, greens.

Peel and shred the boiled beetroots and onion. Dice the fleshy part of herring. Mix the vegetables with herring, place the mixture in a salad bowl, pour over mayonnaise and garnish with greens. The salad can be made without onion.

 

COUNTRY SALAD

2.5 beetroots, 0.5 onion, 1 egg, 3 tblsps sour cream or mayonnaise, salt.

Boil, peel and shred the beetroots. Peel and shred the onion. Peel and chop fine the egg. Mix the ingredients thoroughly and season with sour cream or mayonnaise. Heap the salad in a dish and decorate.

 

BLACK RADISH WITH GOOSE FAT (AN OLD DISH)

2-3 black radishes, 1 onion, 1 tblsps goose fat, salt.

Peel and wash the black radish in cold water, then shred it with a shredder. Peel and grate the onion, mix with the black radish, moisten with melted goose fat and add the salt to taste.

 

FRIED BLACK RADISH WITH HONEY (OLD DISH)

2 black radishes, 2 tblsps vegetable oil, 2 tblsps honey.

Peel the black radish and soak in cold water for 15 to 20 minutes. Dice the blackradish and fry in a hot skillet with vegetable oil, gradually adding the honey.

 

"HEALTH" SALAD

120 g fresh cabbage, 1 carrot, 0.5 onion, 2 apples, 1 tblsp vegetable oil, 1.5 tsp sugar, spices, greens, salt.

Shred the fresh cabbage and mix thoroughly with salt and sugar. Shred the carrot and apples (without cores) with a shredder. Chop fine the onion. Mix the ingredients, add the salt, season with vegetable oil and add spices. Decorate the salad with greens.

 

TOMATO SALAD WITH CHEESE

4 fresh tomatoes, 40 g cheese, 2 tblsps mayonnaise, 3-4 cloves garlic, parsley greens, pepper, salt.

Cut the tomatoes into rings. Peel and chop fine the garlic cloves. Sprinkle the tomato rings with minced garlic, salt and pepper. Shred the cheese and place over the tomatoes, season with mayonnaise and greens.

 

CUCUMBERS WITH HONEY (AN OLD DISH)

4 cucumbers, 50 g honey.

Cut fresh-salted or fresh cucumbers in rings and pour over with honey. Serve with pancakes or rye bread.

 

BELARUSIAN SALAD

40 g boletuses, 200 g beef liver, 2 pickled cucumbers, 3 onions, 2 eggs, 0.75 cupful mayonnaise, 3 tblsps vegetable oil, pepper, greens, salt.

Wash the dried boletuses 3 or 4 times and shred them. Separately boil beef liver, chill and shred finely. Cut the onions and saute in vegetable oil. Peel the cucumbers and cut in small pieces. Mix the ingredients, add pepper, salt and half of the required mayonnaise. Before serving season the salad with the remaining mayonnaise.

 

CHAMPIGNON SALAD

400 g field mushrooms, 1 onion, 1-2 eggs, 1 tblsp vegetable oil, 0.5 tsp 2% citric acid, salt.

Scrub and clean the mushrooms, remove the thin film from the caps. Wash the mushrooms, add hot water to cover, add thinned citric acid and boil until done.

Slice the boiled mushrooms and onions in half rings, season with vegetable oil, salt and pepper.

Heap in a bowl and decorate with edges of eggs.

 

MIENSKI SALAD

4 potatoes, 200 g champignons, 1 onion, 200 g sauerkraut, 4 tblsps vegetable oil, 0.5 tsp 2% citric acid, 1 tsp sugar, greens, salt.

Prepare the champignons as described in the previous recipe. Boil potatoes in their jackets, dice and mix them with shredded sauerkraut and champignons, add the sugar, vegetable oil and salt. Decorate the salad with greens.

 

MUSHROOM CAVIAR

450 pickled mushrooms, 1 onion, 3 tblsps vegetable oil, greens, pepper, salt.

Put the pickled mushrooms through a mincer together with fried onions, add the pepper and salt. Mix thoroughly. Heap in a salad bowl and sprinkle with minced greens.

 

APPETIZER FROM CHAMPIGNONS

600 g champignons, 2 tblsps flour, 1 egg, 3 tblsps bread crumbs, vegetable oil, salt.

Prepare the fresh champignons and boil until half done. Cool them, roll in flour, brush with egging, roll in bread crumbs and fry in a large amount of vegetable oil. Serve cooled.

 

HARADZIENSKI SALAD

100 g boiled beef, 200 g cabbage, 1 onion, 3 tomatoes, 4 tblsps mayonnaise, greens, salt.

Slice the boiled beef. Cut fresh tomatoes into small wedges and slice onions in half rings. Chop fine the fresh cabbage and add some salt. Mix the ingredients and season with a part of mayonnaise, add salt to taste. Heap in a salad bowl, pour over the remaining mayonnaise and decorate with slices of boiled meat, wedges of tomatoes and greens.

 

"PAPARAĆ-KVIETKA" (FERN FLOWER) SALAD

100 g ham, 100 g boiled beef, 3 tomatoes, 3 cucumbers, 1.5 onion, 4 tblsps mayonnaise, greens, salt.

Slice the boiled beef. Cut the ham, cucumbers and tomatoes into shoestrings, mince the onion finely. Mix the ingredients, add the salt, and season with a part of mayonnaise. Heap the salad in a bowl, pour over the remaining mayonnaise and decorate with greens.

 

MAHILEŬ SALAD

100 g boiled beef, 200 black radish, 1 onion, 2 eggs, 4 tblsps mayonnaise, greens, 1 carrot, pepper, salt.

Slice the boiled beef. Cut the onion in half rings, cut the carrot and black radish into shoestrings, mince the eggs finely. Mix the ingredients, add salt, pepper and mayonnaise. Decorate the salad with greens.

 

LIVER SALAD

200 g boiled liver, 3 potatoes, 1 pickled cucumber, 1.5 onion, salad seasoning, greens.

Separately boil the liver and potatoes and dice finely. Cut the pickled cucumbers and onions into shoestrings. Mix the ingredients, add the salad seasoning. Heap the salad in a bowl, decorate with greens.

 

CHICKEN SALAD WITH MUSHROOMS

150 g chicken fillet, 250 g boiled mushrooms, 30 g cheese, 2 eggs, 1 pickled cucumber, 1.6 onion, 1 tblsp vegetable oil, 4 tblsps mayonnaise, greens, salt.

Cut the boiled chicken fillet, mushrooms and pickled cucumbers into shoestrings. Mince fine the hard-boiled eggs. Shred the onion and saute in the vegetable oil. Shred the cheese with a shredder. Mix the ingredients, add the salt and a part of mayonnaise. Heap the salad in a bowl and pour over the remaining mayonnaise. Decorate the salad with the slices of chicken fillet, eggs and greens.

 

"CHATNI" [KHATNI] (HOME-MADE) SALAD

250 g fish, 2 eggs, 1 onion, 4 tblsps mayonnaise, greens, salt.

Dress the fish, heat the fillet over slow fire, add the bay leaf, pepper and onion, then cool it and slice. Mince the hard-boiled eggs, shred the onion, mix with fish fillet, add the salt and season with mayonnaise.

Heap the salad in a bowl, decorate with minced eggs and greens.

 

BARYSAŬSKI SALAD

150 g boiled fish, 2 beetroots, 40 g cheese, 1 egg, 1 onion, 4 tblsps mayonnaise, greens, salt.

Prepare the fish (see recipe "Chatni Salad"). Boil hard the egg. Slice the boiled beetroots and cheese, shred the onion. Add the salt and mix the ingredients. Season the salad with mayonnaise and heap in a salad bowl. Decorate with beetroot slices, minced egg and greens.

 

"NAVINA" SALAD

250 g tinned fish, 2 boiled eggs, 2 tblsps boiled rice, 1 pickled cucumber, 2 tblsps mayonnaise, greens, salt.

Mince the tinned fish, mix with minced eggs, boiled rice and pickled cucumbers cut in cubes. Add the salt and season with mayonnaise. Heap the salad in a bowl and decorate with minced eggs and greens.

 

HERRING SALAD

100 g herring fillet, 70 g cheese, 3 boiled eggs, 1 onion, 4 tblsps mayonnaise.

Slice the herring fillet, cut the onion in half rings, shred the cheese with a shredder. Mix the ingredients and season with mayonnaise. Heap the salad in a bowl and decorate with minced eggs and greens. The salad can be made also without the cheese.

 

ZAKUSAČNY SALAD WITH HERRING

40 g herring fillet, 1 carrot, 100 g cheese, 2 tblsps butter, greens.

Put the herring fillet, boiled carrot and cheese through a mincer, add the butter and mix. Place the mixture in a herring-dish and decorate with butter and greens.

 

"ASOBY" (SPECIAL) SALAD

250 tinned fish, 2 eggs, 2 tblsps green peas, 40 g cheese, 2 tblsps mayonnaise, greens.

Mince the tinned fish. Cut the cheese in small cubes. Mince the boiled eggs. Mix the ingredients, add green peas and mix again. Season with the salt, mayonnaise, heap the salad in a bowl and decorate with greens.

 

FISH HAŁKI (FISH BALLS)

600 g fish, 1 onion, 1 tblsp potato flour, 0.5 cupful milk or water, 2 tblsps horseradish sauce, pepper, salt.

Clean, wash thoroughly and bone the fish (zander, codfish, hake etc.). Put it together with onion through a mincer, add potato flour, salt, pepper, milk or water and mix well. Shape the mixture into balls (two or three making one serving), boil in salt water and drain in a colander. Serve hot or cold with horseradish sauce.

 

AMATARSKI LOAF

850 g pork, 250 g cheese, 250 smoked bones ham, spices, salt.

Cut the shoulder pork into pieces, pound slightly, add the salt and pepper. Slice the cheese, place the slices evenly on pounded pork and cover with pieces of smoked bones ham. Shape it into a roll, tie up and fry in the oven until done. Cool the loaf and put it under a press for 3 to 4 hours. Before serving slice the loaf.

 

STUFFED LIVER, HOMIEL MANNER

500 g beef liver, 60 g salted pork fat, 2 onions, 3-4 tblsps vegetable oil, 1 carrot, 1 root of parsley or celery, pepper, 1 tblsp flour, salt.

Wash the beef liver, remove the film and bile ducts, slice in layers 1.5 cm thick. Over it place a layer of pounded salted pork fat, not over 0.5 cm thick, cover it with a layer of slightly browned onions. Add the salt, pepper, roll into a loaf, tie up, roll in flour and drop into boiling vegetable oil for 2-3 minutes. As soon as the loaf becomes browned, transfer it into a deep dish and continue stewing until it is done in a little water to which onions, carrots, parsley or celery have been added. When done, place the loaf under a light press to give it the desired shape. Before serving slice the loaf and place it in a dish.

 

NIOMANSKAJA APPETIZER

750 g beef, 750 g pork, 50 g caraway seeds, pepper, salt.

Put the beef and pork through a mincer, add the salt, pepper and caraway seeds. Transfer the mixture to parchement, shape it in a long loaf, tie up and boil. When done, cool it and place it under a light press. Before serving slice the loaf.

 

EGGS STUFFED WITH MUSHROOMS

4 eggs, 20 g dried boletuses, 1 onion, 1 tblsp boiled butter, 2 tsps mayonnaise, 2 tsps sour cream, 2 tsps sauce "Paŭdniovy", greens, salt.

Wash the dried boletuses thoroughly, soak them for 3-4 hours until they swell, then wash them again. For boiling place them into the water in which they swelled, add 3% vinegar and boil until done. Use hard-boiled eggs, remove shells, cut off the blunt end of each egg and take out the yolks. Shred the boiled mushrooms, fry and blend with fried onions and yolk, add the salt. Fill the centre of the whites with this mixture. Arrange them in a salad-dish and cover with the cut-off tops. Pour over the sauce, garnish with greens and serve.

 

 

First courses

 

There is a great variety of first courses in traditional Belarusian cuisine such as žur (oatmeal soup), krupienia (thick millet soup), paliŭka (thick soup), kvas and other peculiar soups. Their peculiarity is that they are, in general, rather thick soups combining the first and the second courses. They are characterised by softness and formlessness of their ingredients which is typical of Belarusian cuisine. This is achieved by long boiling, braising and stewing of products in oven which make them thick and kaša-like.

With gas and electricity traditional ways of cooking changed. For modern cuisine long boiling is not characteristic.

The taste of any soup depends greatly upon the way of stock boiling.

Meat and bone stock: 2.5 l water, 200 g bones, 300 g meat, 1 carrot, 1 parsley root, 1 onion, salt.

Chop the bones and wash in cold water. Veal and pork bones are better browned in the oven. Place in a saucepan, pour cold water over the bones, cover the saucepan with a lid and rapidly bring to a boil. Remove the scum with a skimmer and let simmer for 2 to 3 hours. Partially skim the fat on the surface, leaving intact a very thin layer which helps retain the savoury matter in the stock. An hour before the stock is done add the meat and when it boils for the second time add the salt, browned carrots and onions, parsley and other species. Strain the stock when it is done.

The time of boiling of meat stock is 1 to 1.5 hour and the time of boiling of bone stock is 2 hours. To make the meat or bone liquor transparent pour cold water (2-3 times) in boiling stock or add egg shells and boil for 10 minutes and then take them out with a straining spoon.

Fish stock: 1.5 l water, 500 g fish trimmings, 1 onion, 1 parsley root, salt.

Cover with cold water the washed fish trimmings (heads with gills and eyes removed, fins, bones and skin). Bring to a boil, skim, add onion, parsley, salt and continue simmering over slow heat for 50 to 60 minutes. Set aside, skim and strain the stock.

It is best to prepare stock with carp, perch, ruff or bream.

Mushroom stock: 2.5 l water, 50 g dried mushrooms, salt.

Sort the dried mushrooms (preferably the boletuses), wash them thoroughly and soak in cold water for 3 to 4 hours. After the mushrooms swell wash them again and boil for 1 to 1.5 hours in the water in which they have been soaked. Remove the boiled mushrooms from the stock, wash them and dice. Add the salt, set aside the stock and strain.

Oatmeal-water: 150-200 g oat siftings or oatmeal, 1 l boiled water.

Dilute the oat siftings or oatmeal with water in a ceramic bowl, put it in a very warm place and keep it there for 8 to 12 hours.

When the water become of a slightly sour taste and smell pleasantly, strain it so that undissolved parts of oat siftings and thick oatmeal sediments would be left on the bottom of the bowl.

 

 

Hot dishes

 

BELARUSIAN BORŠČ [BORSHCH]

2.5 l water, 300 g ham bones, 200 g beef, 60 g sausages, 2 beetroots, 5 potatoes, 1 carrot, 1 onion, 2 tblsps tomato paste, 20 g pork fat, 1 tblsp flour, 2 tsps sugar, 2 tsps 3% vinegar, 4 tsps sour cream, 1 parsley root, salt.

Place chopped ham bones and beef in a saucepan of cold water and bring to a boil. Froth with a skimmer and allow to simmer over a slow fire. Half an hour before stock is done add the salt, drop in cleaned and washed carrot, onion, parsley root. Strain the stock.

Pry the shredded carrot, parsley and onion in pork fat. Add tomato paste and keep over a slow fire for about ten minutes. To the boiling stock add cubed potatoes, boiled shredded beetroot, onion and roots browned slightly, flour blended with some stock and cook until it is done. Season the boršč with sugar and vinegar. Cut boiled meet and sausages into chunks and add to the boršč.

 

TURNIP BORŠČ [BORSHCH]

500 g beef or veal bones, 1 beetroot, 4 potatoes, 2 turnips, 1 onion, 1 carrot, 3 tblsps tomato paste, 20 g pork fat or margarine, 1 tblsp 3% vinegar, 2 tblsps sour cream, spices, salt.

Add cubed potatoes and turnips to bone stock and boil till half done. 10 minutes before the boršč is done, add boiled and shredded beet, also add onion and carrots sauteed in pork fat or margarine, tomato paste, spices, sugar, vinegar, salt and cook over a slow fire until it is done.

Before serving season the boršč with sour cream.

 

OLD BELARUSIAN KAPUŚNIK (CABBAGE SOUP)

1 l mushroom stock, 400 g sauerkraut, 1 onion, 1 carrot, 30 g boiled (15 g dried) mushrooms, 1 tsp flour, 1 tsp sugar, 1-2 tblsps plum jam, 8 potatoes, 1 tblsp pork fat, salt.

Prepare the mushroom stock. Stew the sauerkraut with pork fat. Saute the shredded carrots and onions. Add the sauteed vegetables to boiling stock and cook for 10 to 20 minutes, adding shredded boiled mushrooms, plum jam, flour blended with some stock, sugar, salt. Pour out the kapuśnik in helping jugs and keep in oven for some time. Serve with baked potatoes.

 

SAUERKRAUT KAPUSTA WITH MUSHROOMS

500 g beef bones, 400 g sauerkraut, 50 g dried mushrooms, 1 carrot, 1 onion, 3 tblsps tomato paste, 2 tsps flour, 2 tblsps fat, 4 tsps sour cream, pepper, bay leaves, greens, salt.

Separately prepare the bone and mushrooms stocks. Drain the mushrooms through a sieve, rinse and dice. Shred the sauerkraut, place in a saucepan, add some bone stock, fat, tomato paste, cover with a lid and stew for about half an hour, stirring from time to time. Add mushroom stock to strained bone stock, bring to a boil, then add sauteed sauerkraut and vegetables, mushrooms, pepper corns, bay leaves, browned flour with some stock mixed in, salt to taste and boil for another 5 to 10 minutes.

Serve the kapusta seasoned with sour cream and greens.

 

KAPUSTA WITH SAUERKRAUT AND FISH

2.5 l water, 700 g sauerkraut, 500 g fish, 1 onion, 1 tblsp flour, 1 parsley root, 2 tblsps butter, greens, bay leaves, salt.

Pour water over fish fillet, bring to a boil and cook until done. Then remove the fish and put stewed sauerkraut, onion, parsley into the boiling stock and boil for 20 to 30 minutes. 3 to 5 minutes before the kapusta is done add bay leaves and browned flour with some stock mixed in. Put chunks of boiled fish into the ready kapusta and sprinkle with minced greens.

 

MUSHROOM KRUPIENIA WITH MILLET (MUSHROOM SOUP)

1 l mushroom stock, 40 g dried boletuses, 0.5 carrot, 1 onion, 1 tblsp butter, 0.25 cupful wheat flour, 3 tblsps millet, 2 tblsps sour cream.

Prepare mushroom stock. Wash the boiled mushrooms and mice them. Cut the onion and carrot into small cubes, saute and mix with mushrooms. Boil the millet and drain in a colander. Brown the flour and blend it with some stock to make a smooth paste. To the strained mushroom stock add the boiled millet, sauteed vegetables, mushrooms and cook until it is done. 5 to 10 minutes before the soup is done season it with the sauteed flour, salt and pepper. Before serving season with sour cream.

Separately serve the croutons. For making croutons take the rye bread, cut off the crust and slice. Shred the cheese with a shredder, mix with mayonnaise and garlic. Cover the bread slices with the mixture and bake them in oven.

 

MUSHROOM GRAVY

1 l mushroom stock, 150 g stale rye bread, 120 g dried mushrooms, 2.5 onions, 3 tblsps margarine, 1 tblsp sour cream, salt.

Prepare the mushroom stock. Cut the boiled mushrooms and onions into shoestrings. Grate the bread, mix with minced mushrooms, sauteed onions and stew for 15 to 20 minutes. Add the mixture to the boiling stock, boil for 3 to 5 minutes and then let it draw.

 

POTATO GRAVY WITH MEAT IN A JUG

1.5 l water, 500 g beef (with a bone), 2-3 potatoes, 1 onion, 40 g vegetable oil or butter, pepper, salt.

Prepare the bone stock, pour it in a jug or a cast-iron pot and keep it in oven for 20 to 30 minutes. Dice the peeled potatoes, slice the onion in half rings, brown and transfer to the jug with meat. Add some pepper and cook in oven until done.

 

MILK SOUP, BELARUSIAN MANNER

4 cupful milk, 2 cupful water, 1 carrot, 1 egg, I-1.5 cupful flour, 2 tsps sugar, 1 tblsp butter, salt.

Boil the shredded carrot in slightly salted water, add the milk, salt and boil again.

To the wheat flour add the egg and a little water, mix thoroughly until it is the thickness of cream and slowly pour into the soup, stirring rapidly. Shortly before the soup is done add sugar and butter.

 

MILK SOUP WITH BUCKWHEAT

7 cupful milk, 0.5 cupful buckwheat, 2 tsps sugar, 1 tblsp butter, salt.

Add the buckwheat to boiling water and boil until nearly done. Pour in the milk and boil for another 10 to 15 minutes. Add the sugar and butter to the ready soup.

 

ZACIRKA WITH MILK

1.25 cupful flour, 1 egg, 1.5 l milk, 2 tsps sugar, 1 tblsp butter, salt.

Mix the flour with egg and a little water. Divide the butter into small pieces and boil in milk blended with water. Add the sugar, salt and butter.

 

COUNTRY ZACIRKA

4 cupful milk, 2 tblsps flour, 1 potato, 1 tsp sugar, 1 tsp butter, salt.

Mix the shredded raw potatoes with flour, pour in the boiling milk and boil for 15 minutes. When it is done add the butter.

 

LENTEN ŽUR [ZHUR] (OATMEAL SOUP, AN OLD DISH)

0.75 l oatmeal-water, 0.5 l water, 2 tblsps vegetable oil, 1 onion, 0.5 tsp caraway-seeds, salt.

Boil the water with minced onion, caraway-seeds and salt. Pour in the oatmeal-water in the boiling water, mix and bring to a boil. Constantly stirring, boil the mixture until it thickens.

Pour the vegetable oil in the hot slightly thickened žur and stir it well. Serve the hot žur with boiled potatoes.

 

ŽUR WITH SMOKED HAM (AN OLD DISH)

0.5 l oatmeal-water, 1 l water, 200 g smoked ham, 1 onion, 2 black radish, 2 carrots, 0.5 parsley root, 4 cloves garlic, dill, salt.

Boil the diced smoked ham, onion, carrot and black radish. When the vegetables and smoked ham are done pour out the water and mix it with the oatmeal-water. Add the salt, bring to a boil and boil for 5 minutes. Add the smoked ham and bring to a boil again.

Season the žur with minced garlic mixed with the salt and dill. Separately serve the boiled potatoes and hot pork fat.

 

MILK ŽUR

0.75 l oatmeal-water, 0.5 l boiled milk (warm), 0.5 cupful sour cream, 1 tsp caraway-seeds, 1 tblsp minced dill, salt.

Pour the oatmeal-water in the boiling water with caraway-seeds, boil for some time, sprinkle with minced dill and add the salt. Mix the sour cream with milk, pour the mixture in žur and stir well.

Separately serve the boiled potatoes, poured over with butter.

 

FISH JUŠKA [YUSHKA] (FISH SOUP)

2 l water, 400 g fish, 2-3 potatoes, 1 carrot, 1-2 onions, celery, pepper, salt.

Clean, wash and bone the river-fish (perch, ruff, etc.), put in a saucepan and cover with water. To the boiling stock add the carrot, onions, diced potatoes, pepper, celery, bring to a boil, add the salt and boil until done over a slow fire.

 

POTATO JUŠKA [YUSHKA] WITH MEAT

1.5 l water, 500-600 g meat, 5-6 potatoes, 2 onions, bay leaves, greens, salt.

Cut the meaty ribs into pieces, wash them and put in a saucepan with cold water. Add the minced onions, bring to a boil and boil over a slow fire. 15 to 20 minutes before the juška is done add the sliced potatoes. Season with bay leaves and salt. Sprinkle the juška with minced greens.

 

 

Cold soups

 

CHAŁADNIK [KHALADNIK] (COLD SOUP) WITH SORREL

1.5 l water, 300 g sorrel, 2 cucumbers, 120 g green onion, 2 eggs, 3 tblsps sour cream, salt.

Sort the sorrel, shred, boil in salted water and cool. Add fresh cucumbers cut up fine, hard-boiled eggs, green onion rubbed together with salt. Before serving season with sour cream and sprinkle with minced dill.

 

CHAŁADNIK [KHALADNIK] (COLD SOUP), MIENSK STYLE

1.5 l water, 200 g sorrel, 300 g beetroots, 2 fresh cucumbers, 1 egg, 100 g green onion, 2 cupful yoghurt, 2 tblsps sour cream, 1 tblsp sugar, dill, salt.

Boil sorted and shredded sorrel in salted water and cool. Separately boil the beet (whole) with vinegar added to the liquor.

To the cooled sorrel juice add green onion minced and rubbed together with salt and egg yolks, shredded fresh cucumbers and beetroot, mix in beetroot liquor the egg white, sugar and yoghurt beaten with a whisk.

Season the ready chaładnik with sour cream and sprinkle with minced dill.

 

 

Meats, chicken, fish

 

 

Meats

 

ROAST SUCKING PIG (AN OLD DISH)

1 sucking pig, 283 tblsps sour cream, fat.

The sucking pig is roasted whole or it may be cut in half. When the sucking pig is roasted whole, cut its vertebral bone up to its fleshy part from the inside, add the salt and lay it on a baking pan with its back upwards. Slightly cover the sucking pig with the sour cream, pour it over with melted butter, pour out 0.5 cupful of water on the baking pan and place it in oven for 1 to 1.5 hour.

For making a ruddy dry crust periodically pour melted fat on the sucking pig while roasting it. To protect its ears from burning cover them with some dough for 30 to 40 minutes. Then remove the dough and continue to roast. Put the peeled potatoes into the sucking pig to keep its shape.

If the sucking pig is not roasted whole, cut it in half along its backbone, spread, rub the salt in, cover with sour cream and roast it periodically greasing with melted fat.

Serve the roasted sucking pig cold together with horseradish. It may also be served hot as a holiday dish.

 

DAINTY PORK

400 g pork, 1 tblsp flour, 2 eggs, 40 g cheese, fat, garlic, pepper, salt.

Cut the pork into pieces, pound, add the salt and pepper, sprinkle with minced garlic, dip in slightly whipped egg, dredge with flour and roast until done. Lay slices of cheese on the pork pieces and roast in oven.

 

SAUSAGES, MIENSK MANNER

500 g pork, (brisket), 40 g lard, 1 tblsp wheat flour, fat, garlic, parsley greens, salt.

Pound the pork pieces, cover them with lard mixed with garlic and minced parsley, shape them into sausages. Dredge with flour and roast them until done under a press.

 

HOLIDAY SAUSAGES

600 g pork, 1 egg, 1 tblsp flour, 3 tblsps bread crumbs, salt.

Stuffing: 100 g boiled chicken fillet, 30 g boiled (15 g dried) mushrooms, 1 onion, 5 prunes, 20 g cheese, pepper, salt.

Cut the pork (bricket) into small pieces. Prepare the stuffing as follows: saute the minced onions, cut the boiled mushrooms, prunes and chicken fillet into shoestring, add the salt and pepper, mix thoroughly, shape into sausages and roll in the shredded cheese. Lay the stuffing on the meat and roll up. Dredge with flour, dip in the whipped egg and dredge with bread crumbs. Brown the sausages and then roast in oven until done.

 

COUNTRY CUTLETS WITH MUSHROOMS

500 g pork, 1 egg, 1 tblsp milk, 4 tblsps bread crumbs, fat, salt.

Stuffing: 100 g boiled (50 g dried) boletuses, 1 onion, fat, salt.

Cut the pork (bricket) into chunks, leaving a bone in each, pound and add the salt. Prepare the stuffing as follows: shred the onion and brown until done. Boil the mushrooms (soak dried mushrooms beforehand), cut them into shoestrings, mix with onions and add the salt.

Put the stuffing on the pounded pieces of pork, fold over the edges to cover the stuffing, brush with whipped egg with milk mixed in, dredge with bread crumbs and fry. Put the cutlets in oven and roast until done.

 

BIEŁAVIESKAJA CUTLET

500 g pork (bricket), 2 eggs, 3 tblsps bread crumbs, 3 tblsps melted butter, salt.

Stuffing: 60 g smoked ham, 1 tblsp flour, 80 g green peas, 0.5 onion, 1 tblsp meat stock, salt.

Cut the pork (bricket) into pieces each containing a bit of bone. Then pound the meat and scrub clean the end of bone. Place some stuffing on each of the pounded pieces of pork. Prepare the stuffing as follows: cut the ham into cubes, saute, add flour browned together with onion and salt, green peas, mix, fry, add stock and stir together into a moderately heavy mixture.

Mould the pieces of pork into sausage shape, dip in egg, dredge in bread crumbs, then roll in egg and crumbs again. Deep fry the cutlets, place in oven and braise until done.

 

"NIAMIHA" CUTLET

400 g pork, 2 tblsps melted butter, 2 tblsps butter, 2 tblsps flour, 1 egg, 1 tsp sugar, 2 tblsps milk, fat, greens, salt.

Cut the pork (bricket) into pieces each containing a bit of bone, scrub clean the end of bone, pound the meat, add the salt, pepper and fry. Separate egg white from the yolk. Rub the white together with sugar, salt and milk, add flour and whip with a whisk until smooth, then add the whipped white. Dip the browned cutlet in dough and deep fry.

 

VICIEBSK CUTLETS

500 g pork (brisket), 60 g white bread, 1 egg, fat, pepper, salt.

Stuffing: 4 onions, 1 egg, 1 tblsp butter.

Cut the pork (bricket) into pieces each containing a bit of bone, pound the meat, add the salt and pepper. Lay the stuffing made of sauteed onion and minced egg on the pork pieces, shape them into cutlets, dredge with white bread crumbs and deep fry.

 

"ŚVICIAŹ" CUTLET

600 g beef (fillet steak), fat, salt.

Stuffing: 400 g lard, 40 g cheese, 4 cloves garlic, 1 tsp adzhika.

Pound the beef pieces thoroughly, brush with adzhika and lay on the stuffing. To make the stuffing cut the lard into cubes, mix them with minced garlic and shredded cheese. Cut the cutlet into an envelope, fry and braise in oven until done.

 

MEAT, BELARUSIAN MANNER

600 g beef, 2 onions, 2 tblsps rye bread crumbs, 3 tblsps butter, 1 cupful sour cream sauce, salt.

Cut the meat (fillet), pound, dust with salt and minced onions and dredge with crumbs. Stew in oven adding water and butter. Serve with sour cream sauce.

Prepare the sour cream sauce as follows: saute the flour (1 tblsp), blend with hot meat stock, strain, add the salt and sour cream and boil over a slow heat for 5 to 10 minutes. When done add browned onions and mix thoroughly.

 

SWEET AND SOUR MEAT

450 g beef, 1 tblsp butter or melted fat, 1 onion, 2 tblsps tomato paste, 1 tblsp sugar, 2 tblsps rye bread crumbs, 1 honey-cake, 1 tblsp 2 % citric acid, spices, salt.

Sear the meat cut into pieces, add pepper, bay leaves, browned onion and stew for about an hour in a little gravy. Then add rye bread crumbs, honey-cake, tomato paste, sugar, citric acid and stew until done.

Serve with boiled or fried potatoes.

 

MEAT STEW WITH APPLES

500 g beef, 2 tblsps melted fat, 300 g apples, 1 onion, 1 carrot, pepper, salt.

Sear the meat cut into pieces, transfer to a saucepan with thick bottom alternating every layer with browned onion, carrot and sliced apples. Cover with meat stock (up to the top) and stew until done. Add the salt and pepper to taste. Serve with the liquor in which the meat was stewed.

 

"ZAHADKA" (RIDDLE) CUTLET

400 g meat, 50 g liver, 1 onion, 2 tblsps milk, 1 egg, 60 g white bread, fat, pepper, salt.

Pass the meat through a mincer, mince the liver and onion and mix everything. Add the salt, pepper and milk to the mixture. Mash the mixture, shape into cutlets, dip into whipped egg and dredge with white bread cut into shoestrings. Then deep fry.

 

MAČANKA [MACHANKA] (PORK STEW), MIENSK MANNER

500 g pork, 1 cupful meat stock or water, 2 tblsps melted fat, 1 onion, 1 cupful sour cream sauce, spices, salt.

Fry pork chunks each containing a bit of rib and brown them until crisp, put in a saucepan, add meat stock or water, bay leaves, salt, cover with a lid and stew until it is half done. Use the pan juices to prepare sour cream sauce with onion. To make the sour cream sauce saute the flour (1 tblsp), blend it with hot stock, strain, add the salt and sour cream and boil over a slow heat for 5 to 10 minutes. When done add browned onions and mix thoroughly.

Cover the prepared meat with sauce, add spices and put into oven for some time. Serve the mačanka with pancakes.

 

COUNTRY MAČANKA (AN OLD DISH)

250 g meat, 200 g country sausage, 2 onions, 100 g fat, 2 tblsps flour, celery, salt.

Cut the pork (with ribs) and country sausage into chunks and brown. Saute the flour, blend it with meat stock or water, mix in boiling water, stirring constantly until it gives a thin flour gravy. Add the celery, salt, finely cut and browned onions, pieces of pork fat. Mix with meat and place in oven for 20 to 25 minutes. Serve with pancakes or boiled potatoes.

 

BELARUSIAN BITOČKI

500 g beef, 1 onion, 1 egg, boiled butter, spices, salt.

Put the beef through a mincer. Add finely sliced raw onion, egg, spices, salt. Then shape into bitočki and fry in boiled butter.

 

MAHILEŬ SAUSAGES

300 g meat (fillet), 160 g salted pork, 2 cloves garlic, 1 egg, 1 tblsp flour, 1 tblsp boiled butter, pepper, salt.

Put the beef and salted pork fat through a mincer twice. Add finely minced garlic, pepper and salt and mix well. Shape into small sausages, roll them in flour, lay in a well greased skillet, brush the top with egging and place in hot oven. Serve the sausages with boiled or fried potatoes.

 

JUBILEE SAUSAGES

250 g beef, 250 g pork, 50 g salted pork fat, 2 tblsps sour cream, 3 cloves garlic, 1 tblsp butter or margarine, fat, red pepper, salt.

Put the beef together with garlic through a mincer twice. Add sour cream, salt and pepper and mix well. Shape the mixture into flat cakes, in the middle of each put thin layers of salted pork fat dusted with pepper, shape into sausages, brown and then braise in oven until done. Cover with butter or margarine when serving.

 

TONGUE BAKED IN DOUGH

500 g ox tongue, 0.75 cupful flour, 2 eggs, 0.5 cupful milk, fat, salt.

Wash the tongue and boil until done. Then transfer it to cold water, remove the skin and cut into rings. Combine flour with salt, egg and milk and mix into an even mixture. Dip the pieces of tongue into dough and deep fry.

 

LIVER, BELARUSIAN MANNER

600 g beef liver, 2 onions, 3 tblsps ray bread crumbs, 6 tblsps sour cream, fat, spices, salt.

Dust the pieces of liver with salt, pepper and brown until crisp, add the browned onions with crumbs, cover with sour cream and braise for 15 to 20 minutes.

 

BEEF HEART STEW WITH VEGETABLES (AN OLD DISH)

400 g heart, 2 tblsps flour, 1 beetroot, 1 pickled cucumber, 2 carrots, spices, 2 tblsps sour cream, fat, salt.

Clean and wash the heart, cut into small chunks, dredge with flour and brown until crisp. Transfer to a pot or saucepan, add slices of pickled cucumber, beetroot and carrot, spices, a little stock and stew over a slow fire. 5 to 10 minutes before it is done, pour sour cream over and add the salt to taste.

 

COUNTRY BEEF STEW (AN OLD DISH)

500 g meat, 6 potatoes, 1 carrot, 1 celery root, 1 tblsp flour, 2 onions, 0.5 cupful sour cream, bay leaves, pepper, salt.

Wash the meat, cut into chunks, pound slightly, dust with salt, pepper, dredge with flour and brown until crisp. Transfer the meat to a pot or a saucepan, add the potatoes cut in rings, onions and carrot. Add stock (or water) and stew over a slow heat. 5 to 10 minutes before it is cooked, add the sour cream, celery, bay leaves and salt.

 

PIAČYSTA (AN OLD DISH). Piačysta is a holiday dish. It is made from beef, boar meat, sucking pig, veal fillet, hare, goose and turkey-hen.

Payachisto may be braised, fried or boiled, taken from the stock and placed in hot oven for some time.

Put the meat in a deep frying-pan, add the salt and dust with spices, onion and garlic. Pour over with some boiled water, then transfer to a hot oven.

 

 

Fowl dishes

 

ROAST FOWL WITH STUFFING (AN OLD DISH)

1.5 kg fowl, 200 g salted pork fat, 0.5 cupful buckwheat or pearl-barley, 2-3 onions, salt.

Prepare the bird (goose, duck or chicken), singe over a fire and clean, cut off the neck, feet and wings, rub with salt inside and outside. Prepare fluffy pearl-barley or buckwheat kaša, separately brown the onion, saute the cubed salted pork fat, mix the ingredients and stuff the bird. Sew up the vent, lay the bird on a baking pan, back downward, and place in oven. Baste occasionally.

The bird can also be stuffed with fresh apples, without the cores and skins, cut into 3-4 parts. Carve the ready bird into pieces after removing the threads and serve together with stuffing.

 

"ŚVITANAK" CUTLET

350 g chicken fillet, 80 g cheese, 1 tblsp mayonnaise, 4 cloves garlic, 1 egg, 80 g wheat bread for crumbs, 2 tblsps margarine, 2 tblsps butter.

Remove tendons and pellicles from the fillet. Lay the stuffing on the big part of chicken fillet and cover it with the small part of fillet. Then shape in a roll, dip in egg, dredge in white bread crumbs twice, brown and braise until done in oven.

Prepare the stuffing as follows: shred the cheese, mince garlic, mix everything and season with mayonnaise.

 

"BIERAŚCIE" ROAST CHICKEN

400 g chicken meat, 8 potatoes, 2 onions, 2 tblsps margarine, 2 tblsps raisins, 1 tblsp grated nuts, spices, sauce, salt.

For the sauce: 1 cupful sour cream, 1 tblsp butter, 1 tblsp flour, 2 tblsps tomato paste.

Prepare, the sauce as follows: saute the flour together with butter, add tomato paste and heat for 7 to 10 minutes. Then cool the mixture and dash with hot sour cream.

Cut the chicken meat into chunks of 30-35 g and brown. Add browned onions, half of tomato paste and braise. Cut the potatoes into cubes and fry slightly. Put the fried potatoes in helping jugs, then cover with chicken meat, add raisins, pour over with remaining sauce, dust with grated fried nuts and make until done in oven.

 

"ŁASUN" (GOURMAND) BITOČKI

300 g chicken meat, 2 tblsps butter, fat.

For the dough: 5 tblsps flour, 4 tblsps milk, 1 egg.

Dash the sifted flour with warm milk, mix thoroughly, add egg yolk, salt and put aside to thicken. Before frying add the whipped egg white and mix. Put the chicken fillet together with skin through a mincer 2-3 times, add the salt and mix. Then shape into flat cakes, put the chilled butter in the middle of each and roll into rissoles. Dip in dough and deep fry.

 

GOOSE NECK WITH STUFFING (AN OLD DISH)

1 goose neck, 0.5 cupful buckwheat or pearl-barley, goose liver, 1 onion, 1 parsley root, bay leaves, pepper, fat, salt.

Singe the goose neck, clean, wash and rub with ground pepper and salt. Prepare fluffy buckwheat or pearl-barley kaša, mix together with finely minced onions fried in fat and pieces of goose liver. Stuff the neck and sew up both ends. Lay in greased pot, add a little water, finely shredded parsley root, onions, bay leaves, close with a lid and place in oven.

 

 

Fish dishes

 

FISH STEW, BELARUSIAN MANNER

300 g saltwater fish, 1 tblsp wheat flour, 2 tblsps vegetable oil, 0.5 carrot, 0.5 pickled cucumber, 40 g pickled mushrooms, 1 cupful tomato sauce, pepper, greens, salt.

Cut the carrot and pickled cucumbers into chunks and boil until half done. Mince the onions and saute slightly. Cut the fish fillet into portions, roll in flour mixed with the salt and pepper and brown until crisp. Cut mushroom tops into small pieces and cut the stems into rings, then mix with vegetables. Lay mushroom and vegetable mixture on fried fish, cover with tomato sauce and braise for 5 to 10 minutes. Before serving dust with minced greens.

 

FISH IN TOMATO PASTE WITH MUSHROOMS

600 g fish (pike, pike-perch, cod) 2 g fresh field mushrooms or other mushrooms, 3 tblsps tomato paste, 3 tblsps white dry wine or 3 % vinegar, 1 tsp flour, 2 tblsps butter, salt.

Prepare fish fillet, clean, wash and mince fresh mushrooms. Lay the fish and mushrooms in a saucepan with thick bottom. Dash tomato paste with water (1 cupful), add dry wine and mix, close with a lid and boil for 15 to 20 minutes; When the fish is done, pour out the stock into another saucepan and make sauce on its base. Serve the fish with boiled potatoes and slightly salted cucumbers.

 

FISH STEW IN MILK

600 g fish (pike, pike-perch, cod), 1 onion, 1 cupful milk, 1 tblsp vegetable oil.

Make fish fillet (without bones but with skin) and cut into chunks. Dredge in flour and fry in vegetable oil.

Put minced onion in a deep frying-pan or saucepan with thick bottom, then put the prepared fish on top and cover with another layer of onion. Pour over hot milk and stew over a slow heat until the onion becomes soft. Dash the fish with minced greens.

 

FISH STEWED WITH POTATOES

6 potatoes, 300 g perch fillet, 2 onions, 2-3 tblsps vegetable oil, 2 tblsps flour, greens, spices, salt.

Cut the perch fillet into cubes, dredge with flour and brown. Cut peeled potatoes into cubes and saute slightly. Put a layer of potatoes in a stoneware pot with sauteed fish, browned onion and potatoes again on top to follow. Add the salt and a little water and stew until done.

 

FISH STEWED WITH APPLES

600 g fish, 5 apples, 1 onion, 1 cupful sour cream, pepper, salt.

Cut fish (cod-fish, founder, wild carp) into pieces and quarter the apples with their skins and cores removed. Shred the onion. Put layers of the above ingredients in greased baking pan, pour over a little fish stock or water and stew until the fish bones become tender. Then transfer the fish to a plate and grate the apples and onion, add the salt, pepper, sour cream and bring to a boil. Before serving pour the sauce over the fish.

 

FISH BAKED IN SOUR CREAM

350 g fish (with skin but without bones), 1 tblsp flour, 1 tblsp vegetable oil, 1 onion, 4 tblsps sour cream, salt.

Cut the fish (with skin but without bones) into portion pieces, dust with salt, pepper, dredge in flour and brown. Cover the fish with sauteed onion, pour over with sour cream and bake in oven.

 

BAKED FISH (AN OLD DISH)

4 fishes (middle-sized), salt.

Dust river-fish (bream or tench) with salt from both sides, lay it on a baking pan and bake in oven for 15 to 20 minutes each side. Serve the fish hot or cold.

 

BELARUSIAN FISH SALANKA WITH BOILED POTATOES

500 g fish, 200 g cucumbers, 80 g capers, 1 onion, 2 potatoes, 4 tblsps butter, 1 tblsps bread crumbs, salt.

For stewed cabbage: 800 g cabbage, 2 onions, 2 tblsps tomato paste, 1 tblsp 3 % vinegar, 1 tblsp sugar, 1 tblsp flour, 2 tblsps butter, bay leaves, pepper, salt.

Dress the cod-fish, perch or zander, cut the fillet into small pieces and boil in a little water.

Put shredded pickled cucumbers into shallow saucepan, add browned onion, fish stock and boil covered with a lid for 10 to 15 minutes over a slow heat.

Shred cleaned fresh cabbage, put it in separate saucepan, add butter and water, cover with a lid and stew for about 40 minutes. Then add browned onion, tomato paste, vinegar, sugar, salt, bay leaves, pepper and stew until done.

When the cabbage is ready, add flour browned with butter, mix and saute. Put a layer of sauerkraut in a deep pan, over it place the bits of boiled fish, then a layer of cucumbers and capers and a second layer of stewed cabbage. On top put boiled potatoes cut into rings, dust with bread crumbs and brush with butter. Bake in oven for 15 to 20 minutes. Before serving garnish the salanka with parsley greens and lemon.

 

RYBNIK

300 g fish fillet, 1 egg, 50 g stale white bread, 0.25 cupful milk, 1 onion, 1 tblsp butter, 1 tblsp vegetable oil, pepper, bay leaves, salt.

Pass fish fillet and bread soaked in milk through a mincer twice. Add the salt, pepper, butter, vegetable oil and egg and mix well into an even fluffy mixture. Lay it on cellophane or cheesecloth and mould into fish shape. Transfer to an oblong-shaped saucepan, cover with fish stock or water and keep over a low fire until done.

Cut the ready rybnik into portions and pass boiled potatoes.

 

 

Potatoes

 

MASHED POTATOES WITH SALTED PORK FAT (AN OLD DISH)

14 potatoes, 100 g salted pork fat, 2 onions, greens, salt.

Boil the potatoes in a slightly salted water, dry and mash. Cut the salted pork fat into small pieces, brown with onion and mix with mashed potatoes. Serve with greens.

 

BULBIANKA WITH MEAT

8 potatoes, 200 g pork stuffing, 3 eggs, 2 onions, 1 cupful milk, 3 tblsps butter, fat, salt.

Boil the potatoes, mash adding hot milk, butter and eggs. Transfer half of mashed potatoes to a frying-pan greased with fat. Cover with meat stuffing mixed with browned onions and on top put a layer of the remaining potatoes. Smooth the mixture, cover with whipped eggs and bake.

 

BULBIANKA WITH MILLET PORRIDGE (AN OLD DISH)

10 potatoes, 4 tblsps millet, 2 eggs, 1 tblsp sour cream, 1 tblsp butter, 1-2 onions, fat, salt.

Boil the potatoes and prepare a sticky millet porridge. Mash the potatoes, add the millet porridge, butter, eggs, salt, browned onions and mix thoroughly. Put the mixture in a hot skillet greased with fat, smooth, brush the top with sour cream and bake.

 

POTATO BABKA (PUDDING) WITH PORK IN A STONEWARE POT

10 potatoes, 250 g pork, 1 onion, 1 tblsp flour, 1 tblsp fat, pepper, salt.

Grate the peeled raw potatoes, add the flour, salt, ground pepper, fried pieces of pork and onion. Mix the ingredients thoroughly, place in a greased stoneware pot and bake.

 

POTATO BABKA (PUDDING) WITH MUSHROOMS

10 potatoes, 200 g fresh mushrooms, 1 tblsp flour, 2 onions, 2 tblsps sour cream, fat, salt.

Grate the raw potatoes, combine with flour and add the salt. Blanch the cleaned mushrooms, wash, boil and brown together with onion. Lay half the potato mixture in a greased skillet, then the layer of mushrooms with onions and the remaining potatoes placed on top. Smooth the surface of the potato babka, brush it with sour cream and bake. Serve with butter or sour cream.

 

KOMES (POTATO BALLS, AN OLD DISH)

12 potatoes, 200 g salted pork fat, 2 onions, salt.

Boil the peeled potatoes in salted water and mash. Brown the finely cut pieces of salted pork fat together with onion to a golden colour and mix together with the potatoes. Divide the mixture into small round balls (komes), brown on a greased griddle and bake in oven.

 

TARKAVANKA (AN OLD DISH)

10 potatoes, 150 g salted pork fat, 2 onions, 70 g dried apples, pepper, salt.

Peel the raw potatoes, grate, add the salt, pepper, slightly browned small pieces of salted pork fat and onion, mix with washed in hot water apples, put into a stoneware pot and bake. Serve with butter and milk.

 

DRANIKl (POTATO PANCAKES, AN OLD DISH) WITH CRACKLINGS

10 potatoes, 2 tblsps flour, 250 salted pork fat, 2-3 onions, vegetable oil, salt.

Grate the raw potatoes, add wheat-flour, salt and mix. Fry like pancakes in a very hot frying-pan with butter. Serve the draniki with salted pork fat cracklings which are cooked as follows: slice the salted pork fat and fry over a slow fire until melting, then add the chopped onions and fry until a golden colour.

 

KAŁDUNY (AN OLD DISH)

18 raw potatoes, 3 boiled potatoes, 200 g pork, 3-4 tblsps vegetable oil, 100 g lard, 1 onion, 3 tblsps sour cream, salt.

Shred the raw potatoes and wring out. Combine with mashed potatoes, adding some salt. Shape the mixture into flat cakes, stuff with minced meat and fry in vegetable oil. Then transfer the kałduny to a pot, cover with gravy made from onions and sour cream fried in lard. Place in oven and heat well.

 

CUTLETS FROM POTATOES AND MUSHROOMS

6 potatoes, 300 g mushrooms, 1 carrot, 2 eggs, 1 tblsp flour, fat, parsley greens, salt.

Wash the potatoes and carrot, boil them and shred on a shredder. Boil the mushrooms in a slightly salted water, drain and mince. Combine the ingredients and add the eggs, minced parsley greens, salt and pepper to taste. Mix well, shape the mixture into cutlets, roll in flour, brush with egging and fry.

 

VEGETARIAN CUTLETS

4 potatoes, 0.5 cupful rice, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 1 egg, fat, salt.

Boil the potatoes, peel them and shred. Boil the rice. Fry the minced onions and shredded carrot until soft. Mix the ingredients, add the minced parsley greens, salt and pepper to taste. Mix thoroughly and set aside for half an hour. Shape the mixture into cutlets, roll in flour, brush with egging and then roll in bread crumbs. Pry the cutlets until a golden colour in the great amount of fat. Serve with milk sauce.

 

STUFFED POTATO DRANIKI (PANCAKES)

12 potatoes, 2 tblsps flour, vegetable oil, 2 eggs, 100 g salted pork fat, pepper, salt.

Shred the raw potatoes, wring out, add the flour, salt, pepper, eggs and mix. Shape the potato mixture into flat cakes. Place them in a heated skillet, put the stuffing on each flat cake and cover with potato mixture. Pry from both sides until a golden brown colour. Place in oven for some time.

Mushroom stuffing: 30 g dried mushrooms, 1 tblsp fat, 2 onions, 0.25 cupful mushroom stock, salt.

Sort the dried mushrooms, wash thoroughly and soak in cold water for 3-4 hours. Wash the soaked mushrooms once again and boil in the water in which they have being soaked for 1-1.5 hours. Take out the boiled mushrooms from the stock, wash and mince finely. Add the fried onions, mushroom stock and mix.

Meat stuffing: 400 g pork, 2 onions, 1 tblsp butter, onions browned in butter, salt, pepper. All the ingredients should be mixed.

Fish stuffing: 300 g fish fillet, 2 onions, 1 egg, 2 tblsps butter, pepper, salt.

Put the fish fillet through a mincer and fry. Saute the shredded onions. Mix the ingredients, add the minced eggs, pepper and salt.

Stuffing from eggs: 4 eggs, 1 onion, 1 tblsp butter, salt.

Hard-boil the eggs, remove the shells, mince finely, combine with fried onions and add the salt.

 

POTATO AŁADDZI (THICK PANCAKES) A LA MIENSK

12 potatoes, 3 tblsps vegetable oil, fat, pepper, salt.

For stuffing: 400 g pork, 4 cloves garlic, pepper, salt.

Grate the raw potatoes and add the salt. Place the mixture in a very hot griddle and fry on both sides. Transfer the ready aładdzi to a saucepan greased with fat and alternate them with layers of pork forcement seasoned with salt, pepper and finely minced garlic. Then put the aładdzi in oven for 15 to 20 minutes.

 

POTATOES BAKED WITH MUSHROOMS AND TOMATOES

4 potatoes, 100 g field mushrooms, 2 tblsps minced parsley, 4 tomatoes, 3 eggs, 6 tblsps meat stock, fat, salt.

Peel the potatoes, cut into chunks and boil in salted water for 10 minutes. Then drain water off and transfer the potatoes to a buttered griddle. Saute the minced mushrooms and parsley and put the mixture over the potatoes. Scald the tomatoes, remove the skin, slice them, remove the core and put on top. Mix the eggs with meat stock and pour onto the griddle. Bake in oven for 20 minutes.

 

POTATOES BAKED WITH VEGETABLE MARROWS

5 potatoes, 1 vegetable marrow, 2 cupful sour cream, 3 tblsps vegetable oil, 1 tblsp shredded cheese, salt.

Cut the raw peeled potatoes into rings, add the salt and saute in butter. Prepare the vegetable marrows in the same way. Put the layers of potatoes and vegetable marrows in a buttered griddle, pour over with slightly salted sour cream, dust with shredded cheese and put in oven for half an hour.

 

BULBIANKA WITH COTTAGE CHEESE

4 potatoes, 200 g cottage cheese, 3 tblsps butter, 0.5 cupful sour cream, salt.

Grate the potatoes, pour the liquid off, add the cottage cheese, salt and mix. Put the mixture in a buttered skillet and transfer it to an oven for baking.

Cut the prepared bulbianka into pieces and pour over with melted butter mixed with sour cream.

 

BULBIANKA WITH CHEESE

8 potatoes, 150 g cheese, 1 cupful milk, 2 eggs, 1 tblsp flour, 1 onion, 3 tblsps butter, salt.

Mince the onion and saute in butter slightly. Mash the boiled potatoes, add milk, eggs, shredded cheese, flour, onion and butter. Mix everything and transfer to a deep skillet greased with butter. Smooth the mixture, sprinkle with butter and bake in oven. Serve the bulbianka with sour cream.

 

POTATO KLOCKI (POTATO BALLS, AN OLD DISH)

10 potatoes, 4 tblsps flour, 1 egg, 2 tblsps butter, salt.

Grate the raw potatoes, combine with flour, egg, salt and mix finely. Divide the mixture into small balls, put into boiling water and boil for 10 minutes. Then drain water off, season the mixture with butter and cook over a slow fire.

 

POTATO KLOCKI WITH CHEESE

8 potatoes, 150 g cheese, 1 egg, 1 tblsp milk, 3 tblsps flour, 200 g salted pork fat, 1 onion, salt.

Boil the peeled potatoes and mash while hot. Then cool slightly, combine with egg, milk, flour, shredded cheese and shape into balls. Transfer the potato balls to a stoneware, add the salted pork fat cut into chunks and sauteed with onion, and bake in oven.

 

POTATO KLOCKI STUFFED WITH MEAT

8 potatoes, 2 eggs, 4 tblsps melted fat, 3 tblsps flour, 3 tblsps bread crumbs, 4 tblsps sour cream, salt.

For stuffing: 400 g pork, 2 onions, 1 tblsp butter, pepper, salt.

Grate the raw potatoes, squeeze dry, add the eggs, salt, and mix. Shape the mixture into small balls, fill them with meat stuffing, roll in flour dip in the beaten egg, then toss in bread crumbs and fry slightly. Transfer to a pot, pour over with melted fat and stew until done. Pour oven with sour cream before serving.

 

POTATO SOČNI WITH COTTAGE CHEESE

8 potatoes, 400 g cottage cheese, 2 eggs, 2 tblsps flour, sugar, salt.

Peel the potatoes and boil, then dry slightly, mash, combine with flour, egg and salt. Shape the mixture into flat cakes with small deepenings. Fill the deepenings with cottage cheese stuffing, dip in the beaten egg and bake in oven.

 

STUFFED BULBIANIKI

8 potatoes, 2 eggs, 2 tblsps flour, fat, salt.

Combine the boiled, mashed and cooled potatoes with eggs, flour and salt and mix finely. Shape the mixture into flat cakes. Put the stuffing in the middle of each flat cake and roll into sausages, then dip in the beaten egg and bake in oven.

Cabbage and meat stuffing: 200 g fresh cabbage, 2 tblsps fat, 200 g pork put through a mincer, 1 onion.

Cut the cabbage finely, scald, drain in a colander, wring out and saute. Combine the minced pork with onion, mix and saute. Mix the cabbage and mince, add the salt and pepper.

Cabbage and onion stuffing: 200 g fresh cabbage, 2 onions, 2 tblsps fat, 100 g salted pork fat.

Prepare the cabbage as described above. Cut the salted pork fat into small chunks. Saute the minced onion. Mix everything and add the salt and pepper.

Mushroom and onion stuff ing: 20 g dried (40 g boiled) mushrooms, 1 onion, 100 g salted pork fat.

Boil the mushrooms (dried mushrooms should be soaked beforehand), mince them and fry with salted pork fat and onion.

 

POTATOES STEWED WITH MUSHROOMS

10 potatoes, 400 g fresh mushrooms, 1 cupful sour cream sauce, 1 onion, garlic, melted butter, salt.

Wash the fresh mushrooms, cut up, fry in butter and pour over with sour cream sauce. Peel the raw potatoes, cut into large pieces and fry with onion. Then mix everything, put into a stoneware pot, dust with minced garlic and stew in oven until done.

 

POTATOES STUFFED WITH MEAT

12 potatoes, 2 cupful sour cream sauce with tomato, fat, greens.

For stuffing: 400 g beef, 1 onion, 1 tblsp pork fat, salt.

Peel the potatoes and scoop out the middle. Put the beef through a mincer, mix with browned onion and add the salt.

 

POTATOES STUFFED WITH LIVER

12 potatoes, 2 cupful sour cream sauce with onion, salt.

For stuffing: 400 g liver, 40 g salted pork fat, 1 onion, salt.

Boil the potatoes in their skins, peel and scoop out the middles. Slice the liver into thin bars, the onion in half rings and the salted pork fat into small cubes. Saute the ingredients, mix, add the salt and fill the hollowed potatoes with the stuffing. Then pour over sour cream sauce with onion mixed in and stew over a slow heat until done.

 

POTATOES WITH MUSHROOMS IN SOUR CREAM

8 potatoes, 400 g fresh mushrooms, 3 onions, 1 tblsp flour, 0.5 cupful sour cream, fat, pepper, salt.

Boil the fresh mushrooms. Cut the potatoes into cubes, fry until half done and combine with mushrooms. Add the browned onions, some flour, salt, pepper to taste and sour cream, then mix everything and put to stew in oven for 5 to 10 minutes.

 

 

Vegetables and mushrooms

 

Using vegetables and mushrooms you can make various dishes of high gustative quality and nutritive value. To achieve these virtues one must know the main methods of preparatory processing of products.

Before peeling potatoes, beetroots, carrot, turnip, swede and other root plants wash them in cold running water. Then wipe dry and remove the skin and rotten spots with a knife made of stainless steel. Before cooking cabbage remove its 2 or 3 top leaves, then wash it and cut out its stalk. Wash greens three or four times under a stream of water. Cut off the thin skin and fruit stems from pumpkins, vegetable marrows or aubergines after washing them. Remove fruit stems from cucumbers. To keep fresh put parsley and celery sprigs into cold water for 20 to 30 minutes.

Vegetables are cut into cubes, rings, shoestrings, etc. correspondingly with the shape of other ingredients of a dish.

Before cooking mushrooms clean them from verdure and sort out. Use small mushrooms whole, scrape thin skin from the stems of medium sized mushrooms and cut the stems into pieces. Caps and stems of large mushrooms should be cut into small pieces. Thin skin on the caps of russels and field mushrooms may be removed. To keep the colour of field mushrooms wash them in water combined with vinegar or lemon acid. Before using dried mushrooms wash them finely, soak in cold water for 2 to 4 hours until thickened, then strain and boil in the same water.

 

CASSEROLE OF STEWED CABBAGE

1 kg fresh cabbage, 2 tblsps pork fat, 300 g pork, 1 carrot, 1 onion, 2 tblsps tomato paste, 1 tblsp 3 % vinegar, 1 tblsp flour, 2 tsps sugar, spices, salt.

Shred the fresh cabbage. Cut the boned pork into pieces 30 to 40 g per person and saute until golden. Shred the onions and carrots into shoestrings and brown slightly. Place the ingredients into a stoneware pot (or casserole), add the vinegar, tomato paste, sugar, spices, salt, flour browned in butter and mixed with water and stew until done.

 

STEWED CABBAGE, HOME MANNER

1 kg cabbage, 300 g minced pork or beef, 1 carrot, 1 onion, 2 tblsps tomato paste, 2 tblsps rice, 1 tblsp flour, 2 tblsps fat, salt.

Cut the cabbage into shoestrings and stew until half done adding stock (200 to 300 g per 1 kg), fat and sauteed tomato paste and stirring periodically. Then add the minced meat, rice, onions and carrots cut into shoestrings and stew until done. Season the cabbage with fried flour, sugar, salt and bring to a boil.

 

POTATO HAŁUBCY

800 g cabbage, 4-5 potatoes, 1 egg, 3-4 onions, 3 tblsps butter, 2 cupsful sour cream sauce with onion, salt.

Clean the cabbage, cut out the stump and parboil in salted water until half done. Then separate the leaves and press slightly. Mix grated boiled potatoes with browned onion and finely minced hard-boiled eggs. Place some of the prepared stuffing on each leaf and fold over the edges to make a closed "envelope". Brown each of the cabbage rolls, pour over sour cream sauce and stew over a slow heat for 30 to 40 minutes.

For sour cream sauce: 1 tblsp flour, 1 cupful meat stock or vegetable liquor, 1 cupful sour cream, 1 tblsp butter, salt.

Prepare the sour cream sauce as follows: brown the wheat flour slightly, add hot meat or vegetable stock, strain, stir in the sour cream and boil over low heat for 5 to 10 minutes. Add the salt and butter to the sauce and mix.

 

POTATO HAŁUBCY WITH MUSHROOMS

500 g fresh cabbage, 3 potatoes, 400 g boiled mushrooms (200 g dried mushrooms), 2 onions, 3-4 tblsps vegetable oil, 0.5 cupful sour cream or sour cream sauce.

Prepare the cabbage as described in the previous recipe (Potato hałubcy).

Prepare the stuffing as follows: boil the peeled potatoes, mash, combine with browned onion and mushrooms. Place some of the stuffing on each cabbage leaf and fold over the edges to make an "envelope". Brown the cabbage rolls and transfer to a griddle. Pour over the sour cream or sour cream sauce and stew until done.

 

STEWED PUMPKIN (AN OLD DISH)

1 kg pumpkin, 2-3 tblsps melted butter, sugar, salt.

Cut the pumpkin in half, remove the skin and seeds, wash with cold water. Then cut into shoestrings and stew in the skillet with butter adding some water, the salt and sugar to taste.

 

MASHED PUMPKIN WITH POTATOES (AN OLD DISH)

300 g pumpkin, 3 potatoes, 0.5 cupful milk or 2-3 tblsps sour cream, salt.

Wash the pumpkin with the skin and seeds removed, cut into chunks and boil. Boil and mash the potatoes. Mash the pumpkin and combine with the potatoes. Add the milk or sour cream, salt and stew. Serve with milk.

 

CARROTS STEWED WITH APPLES

7 carrots, 4 apples, 3 tblsps sugar, 2 tblsps butter, salt.

Cut the peeled raw carrots into chunks, add butter, little water and stew. 15 minutes before it is done add apples cut into pieces, sugar and salt.

 

CARROTS STEWED WITH RICE

6 carrots, 2 tblsps rice, 2 tblsps butter, 0.5 cupful milk, sugar, salt.

Peel the carrots, cut into cubes and place in a saucepan. Add the salt, sugar, butter, washed rice, pour over with milk and stew over a slow fire until done. Decorate with parsley.

 

CARROT ZAPIAKANKA (BAKED PUDDING) WITH COTTAGE CHEESE

6 carrots, 200 g cottage cheese, 1 cupful milk, 2 slices of stale white bread, 1 egg, 0.5 cupful sour cream, 2 tblsps bread crumbs, 3 tblsps butter, sugar, salt.

Boil the carrots in salted water and shred. Remove crusts from white bread and soak it in milk, then add the egg, sour cream, cottage cheese, salt and some sugar. Combine the ingredients with the carrots. Grease a skillet with butter, dust with bread crumbs, place the carrot mixture and smooth. On top dust the bread crumbs, sprinkle with butter and bake in oven. Serve with sour cream.

 

PUMPKIN BAKED WITH EGGS

1 kg pumpkin, 1 onion, 3 tblsps butter, salt.

Cut the onions and brown in butter. Peel the pumpkin and cut into cubes. Combine with onions and stew. When the pumpkin becomes soft, transfer the mixture to a skillet greased with butter, pour over with whipped eggs and bake.

 

BAKED CABBAGE

500 g cabbage, 4 eggs, 3 tblsps butter, salt.

Cut the cabbage into cubes, cover with hot water and boil for 5 minutes. Then pour out water and fry the cabbage in butter. Make holes in smoothed cabbage, fill each with an egg and bake.

 

HARBUZ (PUMPKIN PUDDING) WITH NOODLES

1 kg pumpkin, 0.5 cupful noodles, 3 tblsps butter, 3 eggs, 1 tblsp sugar, cinnamon, salt.

Peel the pumpkin, cut into shoestrings, add the salt and fry in butter.

Boil the noodles and combine with fried pumpkin, then add the eggs, sugar, salt, cinnamon, mix, transfer to a buttered skillet and bake.

 

PUMPKIN AŁADDZI (THICK PANCAKES)

1 kg pumpkin, 3 eggs, 1 cupful flour, 2 tblsps butter, 1/3 tsp household soda, 2 tblsps sugar, fat, salt.

Peel the pumpkin, boil and drain water. Mash the pumpkin and add butter. Then combine with sugar, eggs, flour, household soda, add the salt to taste and mix. Fry as ordinary aładdzi.

 

PUMPKIN PANCAKES

1 kg pumpkin, 0.5 l milk, 15 g yeast, 3 eggs, 3 tblsps flour, 1 tblsp butter, 1 tblsp sugar, fat, salt.

Peel the pumpkin, boil and mash. Add the blended yeast, eggs, flour and mix thoroughly. Put the dough in warm place for 2 hours. Then add melted butter, sugar, salt, mix finely, let the dough rise again and fry.

 

CARROTS BAKED IN SOUR CREAM

3-4 carrots, 3 tblsps sugar, 0.5 cupful sour cream, 2 tblsps butter, salt.

Slice the carrots, add the sugar, salt and fry until golden brown. Then add the sour cream and bake in oven.

 

MUSHROOMS FRIED WITH ONION GRAVY (AN OLD DISH)

1 kg boletuses, 1 onion, 1 cupful sour cream, 3 tblsps fat, salt.

Wash the fresh small boletuses and dry slightly. Dust the caps with salt and fry for 15 minutes in very hot butter, stirring constantly. Separately put the minced onions in hot butter, add the salt and stew until tender, then add the sour cream, bring to a boil and pour over the mushrooms.

 

 

Eggs and dairy dishes

 

SCRAMBLED EGGS (AN OLD DISH)

8 eggs, 100 g pork fat, greens, salt.

Cut the unsalted pork fat (with streaks of meat) into pieces and fry until brown from one side, then turn over and carefully pour over the eggs. Dust with salt, minced greens and fry until thickened.

 

OMELETTE WITH POTATOES

8 eggs, 6 potatoes, 0.5 cupful milk, 4 tblsps butter, salt.

Peel the potatoes, wash, cut into rings and fry in butter from both sides.

Prepare the omelette mixture as follows: whip the eggs combined with milk and salt.

Pour the mixture over the prepared potatoes and bake in oven.

 

OMELETTE WITH MUSHROOMS

8 eggs, 0.5 cupful milk, fat, 0.5 kg boiled mushrooms, 1 onion, 2 tblsps sour cream, 2 tblsps melted butter, salt.

Prepare the omelette mixture as described above.

Cut the boiled mushrooms into shoestrings, fry and combine with browned onions, then pour over with sour cream.

Pour the mixture into a skillet greased with fat arid fry. When the mixture thickens slightly, put in the middle the prepared mushrooms and bake in oven.

 

EGGS ROLL WITH POTATOES

9 eggs, 0.5 cupful milk, 4 tsps butter, 6 potatoes, 2 tblsps flour, 1 tblsp grated cheese, salt.

Prepare omelette mixture from eggs and milk, add the flour and mix finely. Warm up butter in the skillet, pour in the omelette mixture and bake in oven for 5-7 minutes. Take out the omelette from the oven, place it on a board, cover with a layer of fried potatoes seasoned with greens, salt and raw eggs. Then shape the omelette into a roll, transfer to a griddle, dust with grated cheese, sprinkle with butter and place in oven for 2-3 minutes.

Cut the roll into pieces, 1.5 to 2 cm thick, pour over with butter and dust with minced greens.

 

KAŁABKI (BALLS) WITH RAISINS

300 g cottage cheese, 5 tblsps flour, 1 tblsp sour cream, 2 eggs, 4 tblsps raisins, fat.

Mash the cottage cheese, add the flour, eggs, sour cream and mix. Shape the mixture into flat cakes, and in the centre of each put some raisins previously soaked and dried. Mould the flat cakes into balls, roll in flour and fry in a large amount of fat. Then transfer the balls to oven and bake for 5 to 6 minutes.

 

COTTAGE CHEESE STICKS

300 g cottage cheese, 8 tblsps flour, 2 eggs, 2 tblsps sugar, 2 tblsps sour cream, 0.5 tsp household soda.

Mash the cottage cheese, combine with flour, eggs, sour cream, sugar, household soda, salt and mix thoroughly. Roll the mixture into a layer, 1 cm thick, and cut into strips, 2 cm wide. Shape into sticks and fry in a large amount of fat.

Before serving dust with castor sugar and serve with sour cream.

 

COTTAGE CHEESE PUDDING WITH PUMPKIN

600 g pumpkin, 300 g cottage cheese, 2 tblsps semolina, 0.5 cupful milk, 2 tblsps butter, 2 eggs, sugar, salt.

Peel the pumpkin, cut into pieces, saute in butter. Then cool it and mash.

Separately boil semolina with milk. Combine the prepared ingredients with mashed cottage cheese, eggs, sugar and salt. Beat up finely. Turn the mixture onto a skillet greased with fat and dusted with bread crumbs, then smooth it. Brush with egg, dust with bread crumbs and bake in oven.

 

 

Cereals and flour dishes

 

KAŠA-HŁAZATKA

0.5 cupful pearl barley, 0.5 cupful peas, 1.5 cupful water, 80 g salted pork fat or 4 tblsps butter, salt.

Soak the peas in cold water for 3 to 4 hours. Separately boil pearl barley kaša, add the peas and place in a moderate oven for an hour and a half. Serve with pork cracklings or vegetable oil.

 

KAŠA, VICIEBSK MANNER

1 cupful pearl or fine-ground barley, 6 potatoes, 1 cupful milk, 4 tblsps butter, salt.

Boil the peeled potatoes in salted water, put through a ricer and mash thoroughly. Separately boil pearl or fine-ground barley kaša. Combine the potatoes with hot milk and kaša. Then mix and place in oven for 30 to 40 minutes.

Serve the kaša with butter.

 

MANNACROUP (SEMOLINA) KAŠA WITH CARROTS

0.75 cupful mannacroup, 3.5 cupful milk, 3 carrots, 1 tblsp sugar, 2 tblsps butter, salt.

Shred the cleaned carrots with a fine shredder. Place the carrots into a saucepan, add part of the butter, sugar and salt and stew over a slow fire. Add the hot milk, the remaining part of butter, bring to a boil, add the manna-croup, boil until the kaša thickens and place in oven for 10 to 15 minutes.

Serve hot seasoned with butter.

 

MAŃNIK

1 cupful mannacroup, 1 bottle yoghurt, 2 tblsps sugar, 1 egg, 0.5 tsp household soda, 4 tblsps sour cream or butter, salt.

Sift the mannacroup, add yoghurt, salt, egg, sugar, mix and set aside for 2 hours to swell. Then add the household soda, stir the ingredients together until they are thoroughly mixed, pour onto a greased hot skillet or mould and bake in oven. Serve the pudding with sour cream or melted butter poured over.

 

KLOCKI

Klocki are flour dishes. Their obvious ingredients are butter, eggs and sometimes milk.

Originally the klocki were made from a rather thick dough cut into pieces, rolled into small balls and then boiled. Very popular were klocki with stuffing. In our times different cereals and potato are used for making klocki.

There are ordinary and boiled klocki. The main thing in their cooking is thorough grating and beating of all their ingredients. Klocki are boiled in salted water in a saucepan with a tightly closed lid over a slow fire which gives them the opportunity to rise up and not to fall apart.

 

ORDINARY FLOUR KLOCKI

4-5 tblsps flour, 4-5 tblsps milk, 2 eggs, 2 tsps butter, melted fat or vegetable oil.

Mix the butter with egg yolks gradually adding flour and milk. Knead the dough, add the salt and if the dough is made from buckwheat flour add the dill and caraway: if the dough is made from rye or wheat flour add the browned onions, and then combine with whipped egg whites. The dough should be like a thin porridge. With a help of a tea spoon wetted in water separate small pieces and put them into boiling water. Season the klocki with butter and use them for a broth.

 

BOILED MANNACROUP KLOCKI

0.5 cupful man-nacroup, 1 cupful milk, 4 eggs, 2 tblsps butter, salt.

Boil the milk with butter, add the mannacroup, mix finely, add the salt, close a lid and put into a hot oven or over a "water bath" for 10 to 15 minutes for the mannacroup to swell. Then cool the dough, add 4 egg yolks, mix; separately whip the egg whites and add them to the mixture.

Boil the klocki in salted water. When serving, pour over with butter or boiled milk.

 

DESSERT KLOCKI

3 tbsps mannacroup, 12 hazel-nuts, 0.3 cupful cream, 3 eggs, 1.5 tblsp castor sugar or sugar.

Mix the egg yolks with sugar, combine with grated hazel-nuts, mix again, pour in the cream, mix the ingredients and carefully add the mannacroup slightly ground in a mortar. Then set aside in cool place for 15 to 20 minutes. Add the whipped egg whites to the dough. Boil the prepared klocki in salted water.

Serve the dessert klocki with the kissel or bilberry compote.

 

SPONGE PANCAKES

1.5 cupful flour, 1.5 cupful milk, 1 tsp sugar, 1 egg, 20 g yeast, vegetable oil, salt, sugar.

Prepare the sponge by dissolving the yeast in two thirds of the milk warmed to a temperature of 35° to 40 °C, adding half the flour and stirring until smooth. Cover and leave in a warm place for 1-1.5 hours. When the sponge rises, add the sugar, salt, egg yolks, vegetable oil or margarine, remaining flour and warmed milk. Then mix thoroughly and set aside in a warm place again. In 1-1.5 hours after the second rise add the whipped egg whites and mix.

The pancake dough must be like a thick sour cream.

The pancakes are fried in fat on a hot frying pan. They are served with butter, sour cream or fried salted pork fat.

 

QUICK PANCAKES

1.5 cupful flour, 2 cupful yoghurt, 1 tblsp butter, 1 egg, 0.5 tsp household soda, citric acid, salt.

Mix together the flour, egg yolks, salt, melted butter and pour in sour milk (yoghurt). Whip the egg whites and add to the dough. Dissolve the household soda in a cupful of water, add a few drops of citric acid (to neutralize), combine with the dough before baking, mix and bake the pancakes.

 

BUCKWHEAT PANCAKES

1.5 cupful buckwheat flour, 0.5 cupful wheat flour, 2 cupful milk, 20 g yeast, 1 tblsp sugar, 1 tblsp butter, 2 eggs, salt.

Prepare the sponge (see the above recipe). After the sponge rises add the salt, sugar, egg yolks, melted butter, buckwheat flour, mix, pour in the milk wanned up to 40-45 °C, set the sponge aside to rise, then fold in the whipped egg whites. Fry the pancakes and serve with the cottage cheese mixed together with butter.

 

BLINČYKI (THIN PANCAKES)

1 cupful flour, 2 cupful milk, 1 egg, 1 tsp sugar, 4 tblsps fat or butter, salt.

Combine the eggs, sugar, salt, flour and half the milk until even, pour in the remaining milk and mix. Fry the pancakes in small griddles greased with melted fat or butter.

 

STUFFED BLINČYKI. Fry pancakes as described in the above recipe. Put the stuffing in the centre of a pancake, on its fried side, shape into an "envelope" and fry from both sides.

For vegetable stuffing: 0.5 middle-sized head of cabbage, 4 carrots, 1 onion, 1 egg, 2 tblsps butter.

Cut the fresh cabbage, carrots and onions into shoestrings. Pry the cabbage until done and combine with browned carrots and onions, then add the minced egg and salt.

For potato stuffing: 4 potatoes, 1 onion, 100 g salted pork fat.

Peel the potatoes, boil and mash. Brown the onions in melted pork fat, combine the ingredients and add the salt to taste.

 

BLINČYKI-VIERČYKI

200 g cottage cheese, 1 egg, 1 tblsp sugar, 4 tblsps sour cream, 3 tblsps butter.

Fry pancakes (see the recite "Blinčyki"). Stuff the pancakes with cottage cheese mixed together with sugar and egg, shape into a roll and place in massive-bottomed skillet. Pour over the sour cream blendel with melted butter, cover with a lid and bake in oven for 20 to 30 minutes.

 

OATMEAL BLINČYKI

2 cupful porridge oats, 6 cupful water, 1 cupful flour, 1 egg, 1 tsp sugar, 1 onion, 2 tblsps vegetable oil, salt.

Place the oatmeal in a saucepan, add water to cover, allow to turn sour. Then strain and wash the husks. Use the oatmilk to make a dough by adding the oatmeal or wheat flour, egg, sugar and cook thin pancakes.

Alternate layers of browned onions with the thin pancakes and heat in a moderate oven for about 5 minutes.

 

DRAČONA (AN OLD DISH). In the past the dračona was considered to be a holiday dish because for its cooking were used more eggs, milk, butter and also the best flour (white wheat flour) than for other dishes from flour.

The present Belarusian dračona is cooked from a slightly sour dough which makes it possible to bake the dračona without the yeast. The dračona is prepared from rye flour with the adding of some water blended with milk whey. The dough for dračona must be slightly sour.

Dissolve the dough with milk and add the flour (buckwheat, barley or wheat flour). Then add the butter, egg yolks, sugar and separately whipped egg whites.

 

 

Dishes from dough

 

You can prepare leavened or unleavened dough. The leavened dough is used for making fancy pastries with larger amount of fat, sugar and sour cream; the unleavened dough is used for cooking less fancy pastries such as, for example, pirozhki (small pies).

The unleavened dough. Warm the water or milk to a temperature of 30° to 35 °C, add the yeast dissolved in warm water. Then add the sugar, salt, eggs, flour, knead well and in the end of kneading add the fat or vegetable oil.

The well kneaded dough should be smooth, without any lumps, and should not stick to the hands.

Cover the dough with a clean cloth and stand in a warm place to ferment for 1.5-2 hours. When the dough is fermenting knead it once or twice more for riching it with oxygen. This will make for the process of fermenting and for rising of the dough.

The leavened dough. Warm the milk or water to a temperature of 30° to 35 °C, add the yeast dissolved in water, half of the flour and mix until smooth.

Cover the leavened dough with a clean cloth and stand in a warm place. In the process of fermenting the leavened dough will increase in 1-2 times of its volume. When the fermenting is finished, add the sugar, eggs, salt and the remaining flour. Then knead the dough until it is smooth and does not stick to the hands. Combine the dough with mashed fat and knead again. Put aside the kneaded dough to ferment for 1.5-2 hours. During this period knead the dough again for 1 or 2 times.

 

BELARUSIAN PIE

For 1 kg of the pie: 3 cupful flour, 2 tblsps sugar, 2 tblsps butter or margarine, 2 eggs, 15 g yeast, 0.75 cupful milk or water.

Prepare the leavened dough. Divide it into two pieces and roll each of them into a layer 3-4 cm thick. Put one of the layers on a griddle greased with butter, place the stuffing in the centre, and cover with another layer and pinch the edges.

The pie may be decorated with dough figures of any kind. To do that, roll the remaining part of the dough out thinly and cut it into small stars, diamonds, leaves, etc, then place these on top of the pie. Set aside the pie to rise and before baking brush with beaten egging, prick with a fork in several places and put in oven at 220 °C to 230 °C for 25-30 minutes.

 

OPEN PIROH (APPLE PIE)

For 1 kg piroh: 3 cupful flour, 400 g apples, 2 tblsps butter or margarine, 2 eggs, 15 g yeast, 0.75 cupful water or milk.

Prepare the leavened dough. Prepare the apple stuffing as follows: wash the apples, remove the skins and cores, slice, add a little water, sugar and boil, stirring, until the stuffing thickens.

Roll the dough out until 1 cm thick and place in a greased baking pan. Put a layer of apple stuffing on top of the dough and fold over the edges 2 cm wide. From narrow dough strips make a lattice, place it over the stuffing layer and brush with egg. Allow the pie to rise, brush with egging and bake in oven at 220° to 230 °C.

 

CLOSED PIROH (APPLE PIE)

For the dough (per 2.5 kg piroh): 7 cupful flour, 0.75 cupful sour cream, 0.75 cupful water, 0.75 cupful sugar, 2 eggs, 300 g apples, 30 g yeast, salt.

Prepare the leavened dough. Peel fresh apples, remove the cores, slice thinly and add to the dough. When the dough rises place it in a baking pan greased with vegetable oil, allow it to rise for 40 to 45 minutes and bake in oven.

 

KUCHON [KUKHON] WITH ONION

3 cupful flour, 1 onion, 1 tblsp sugar, 2 tblsps fat, 1 egg, 200 g yeast, 1 cupful water, 1 tsp vegetable oil, salt.

Prepare the leavened dough and shape it into flat cakes 1.5-2 cm thick. Use a rolling-pin to roll some browned onion into the top of each cake. Bake the cakes in oven at 250 °C.

 

BELARUSIAN PIERNIK

For dough (1 kg piernik): 200 g ground-nut khalva, 1 cupful sugar, 3 cupful flour, 1 egg, 2 g cinnamon, 170 g jam, household soda, vanilla, salt.

Combine the sugar, eggs, rubbed ground-nut khalva, jam, vanilla, cinnamon and household soda, mix thoroughly until smooth. Add the wheat flour and knead into a dough. Roll it, place in a baking pan greased with butter and bake at a temperature not more than 180 °C. When the piernik is ready glaze it with sugar syrup.

 

MIENSKI HONEY CAKE

Per 1 kg cake: 2 cupful flour, 0.5 cupful sugar, 120 g honey, 5 tblsps butter, 5 eggs, 1 tsp vinegar essence, cinnamon, vanilla, salt.

Mix the eggs, honey, butter, sugar, salt and beat until smooth. Add essence of vinegar, vanilla, cinnamon and, stirring in the wheat flour gradually, knead into a dough of homogeneous consistency. Turn into cake tins or into a baking pan and bake in oven at 200° to 220 °C.

Cool the ready cake, remove from the cake tins and dust with castor sugar.

 

"ADPAČYNAK" (HOLIDAY) BISCUITS

Per 1 kg biscuits: 3 cupful flour, 1.25 cupful sugar, 1 cupful butter, 2.5 tblsps milk, 200 g raisins, 1 tblsp liqueur, 10 g household soda, salt.

Combine the sugar, milk, melted butter, liqueur, household soda, salt, raisins, mix well until smooth, then add the flour and mix again. Pipe the mixture in small portions from pastry bag onto a baking pan greased with butter.

Bake in oven at 200 °C.

 

BELARUSIAN BISCUITS

Per 1 kg biscuits: 3.25 cupful flour, 1.5 cupful sugar, 1.25 cupful butter, 0.5 cupful milk, 100 g jam, 3 g household soda, vanilla, salt.

Dissolve sugar in milk, add the butter, household soda, salt and vanilla, beat until smooth, stir in the wheat flour and mix again. Pipe the mixture into biscuit shapes on a baking pan greased with butter.

Place a bit of apple jam in the centre of each biscuit.

Bake biscuits in oven at 200 °C.

 

PIERNIKI (HONEY CAKES, AN OLD DISH)

6 cupful flour, 1 cupful whey or sour milk, 2-3 eggs, 8-10 tblsps sugar, poppy seeds, butter, salt.

Sift the flour and stir in the eggs, add the sugar, salt, washed poppy seeds, creamed butter and make a dough by gradually adding the whey, then set it aside for 20-30 minutes. Roll the dough into a sheet 1-1.5 cm thick, cut it into rounds and halfmoons. Cook the cakes on a buttered baking pan. Pour thin honey over the cakes or dust them with sugar rubbed together with poppy seeds. The whey may be substituted for milk or sour milk.

 

 

Desserts and beverages

 

STEWED DRIED FRUITS WITH HONEY

200 g dried fruits, 1.5 l water, 30 g honey.

Wash the dried fruits twice or thrice in warm water. Put into a saucepan and boil for 20 to 30 minutes. 5 minutes before done add the honey. Serve cooled.

 

CRANBERRY KISIEL

100-120 g cranberry, 3-4 tblsps sugar, 2-3 tblsps potato flour.

Sort the cranberries, wash in hot water and mash finely with a spoon or pestle. Add some water and press through a sieve. Cover the berry pulp with 4-5 times the quantity of water, bring to a boil and strain. Cool part of the juice and dissolve potato flour in it. Prepare syrup from the other part of the juice by adding sugar and bringing to a boil. Then pour in the dissolved potato flour, bring to a boil again, cool and add the juice. Pour out the prepared kisiel, sprinkle with sugar and cool.

 

GUELDER ROSE KISIEL

100 g guelder rose berries, 0.5 cupful sugar, 2 tblsps potato flour.

Sort the fresh berries, wash, add some water, close with a lid and set aside for an hour. Then press the berries through a sieve, remove the stones, pour in hot water, add the sugar, mix and bring to a boil. Pour in the dissolved potato flour and bring to a boil again.

 

STRAWBERRY KISIEL

1 cupful strawberries, 3/4 cupful sugar, 2 tblsps potato flour.

Sort the strawberries, wash and press through a sieve. Fill a saucepan with 2.5 cups of hot water, add the sugar and mix. Boil the prepared syrup, add the dissolved potato flour and bring to a boil again. Combine the hot kisiel with the berry puree and mix well.

 

BELARUSIAN KISIEL

2 cupful rolled oats, 0.5 l water, 4 tblsps sugar.

Grind the rolled oats, cover with cold water, then set aside to ferment for 2-3 days. Then strain, add the sugar and boil, stirring constrantly, for 5 to 10 minutes. Serve the kisiel cooled.

 

BELARUSIAN TEA

1 l water, 1 tsp heather, 1 tsp St. John's wort, 1 tsp mint.

Brew tea in a china teapot as follows: rinse the teapot with boiled water, place the herbs, pour in boiling water to one third of the teapot and let it draw with a closed lid.

It is not recommended to boil the brewed tea or to keep it for a long time. Serve the tea with sugar, honey or jam.

 

"KAŁASOK" DRINK

0.5 l bread kvas, 0.5 l Belarusian tea, 3 tblsps honey, citric acid.

Dissolve honey and some citric acid in hot tea and cool. Add the bread kvas and shake up.

 

AMBER DRINK

1 cupful birch sap, 3 cupful water, 4 tblsps honey, citric acid.

Dissolve honey and citric acid in boiled hot water. Then cool and combine with birch sap.

 

APPLES, BIERAŚCIE MANNER

8 apples, 2 tblsps sugar, 1 tblsp butter, 1 tsp potato flour, 0.5 cupful milk, 1 egg, 1 tblsp raisins, 1 tblsp castor sugar, cinnamon.

Scoop the cores out of the apples, fill the hollowed apples with sweet mixture. Make the sweet mixture as follows: pour the dissolved potato flour in boiling milk, bring to a boil again, add the washed raisins, sugar, butter. Then cool, add the eggs and cinnamon and mix well. Place the apples on a griddle, add some water and bake.

 

APPLES BAKED WITH HONEY

500 g apples, 4 tblsps honey, 50 g sugar.

Wash the tart apples, cut out the cores and fill the hollows with sugar. Place the apples in a baking pan, pour in some water and put in the oven to bake. Before serving pour over with honey.

 

APPLES BAKED WITH COW-BERRIES

8 apples, 1 cupful cow-berries, 0.5 cupful sugar, 2 tblsps castor sugar.

Scoop the cores out of the fresh apples, fill the hollowed apples with cow-berries blended with sugar and bake in a baking pan in the oven. Pour some water into the baking pan to prevent the apples from bursting. Dust apples with castor sugar.

 

"ŁASUNAK" APPLES

8 apples, 2 cupful 30% cream or sour cream, 1 cupful castor sugar, 2 tblsps crumbled nuts, 2 g citric acid.

Remove the skin and scoop the cores out of the apples, boil them in acidified and sugared water until done. Beat the cream or sour cream together with castor sugar, add half of the crumbled nuts. Fill the hollowed apples with the prepared mixture, then dust them with the remaining nuts and decorate with slices of apples.

 

MIADUCHA [MYADUKHA] (HONEY DRINK)

2.5 l water, 150 g honey, 5 g yeast.

Dissolve the honey together with honeycombs in cooled boiled water, then pour in a wooden barrel. Separately dissolve the yeast in warm water, combine with the dissolved honey and mix well. Season in cool place for 6 to 8 days.

 

 

Ritual dishes

 

KARAVAJ

10 cupful flour, 120 g yeast, 1 cupful sour cream, 100 g butter, 50 g raisins, 4 cupful milk, 8 eggs, fat, salt.

Make a leavened dough by dissolving the yeast in lukewarm milk, add the salt, stir in half the flour and mix well until even. Set aside to rise for 2 hours. After the dough has risen, and begins to settle, add to it honey, eggs, raisins, sour cream, butter and knead the dough until it leaves the sides of the bowl clean. Set aside to rise again. After the dough has doubled its original bulk, beat it down and set aside to rise, then knead on the table and place in a greased mould.

Decorate the top of the karavaj with dough figures, colour caramel, brush with beaten egging and bake in oven.

 

BABINA KAŠA [KASHA] (PORRIDGE)

5 cupful wheaten cereal, 2 tblsps butter, 3 eggs, sugar, raisins salt.

This is a conventional dish at a Belarusian birthday party. It is made from the wheaten cereal. Wash the cereal in water, pour into a big pot with boiling salted water and boil until done. Then add the butter, raisins, sugar, eggs and mix. Brush the top of the kaša with beaten egging mixed with butter and bake. Serve in pot in the end of the party.

 

KANUN (PORRIDGE)

5 cupful millet, sugar, salt.

A funeral repast dish. Sift the millet and wash. Pour into a saucepan, cover with hot water, bring to a boil, add the salt, sugar and boil over a slow fire until thickened. Then transfer it to the oven.

 

SYTA

1 l water, 3-4 tblsps honey.

Pour the cooled boiled water into a deep bowl, add some honey and sugar and mix well. Then bring to a boil and set aside to cool.

 

KUĆCIA

5 cupful coarse barley, 12 cupful water, fat, salt.

A Christmas dish. Sift the coarse barley, wash in water and pour into a pot with salted boiling water and boil until thickened. Then place into the oven for some time. Season the kućcia with fat or butter.

 

KUŁAHA

1 kg berries, 1.5 l water, 3-4 tblsps rye flour, 1-2 tblsps honey or 1 cupful sugar.

For making kułaha can be used various fresh forest berries (wild strawberries, bilberry, raspberries, red whortleberry, great bilberry, guelder rose berries), and also plums and cherries with their stones removed. Boil berries in oven until they become soft. Some time before done, add honey or sugar to taste, and then, stirring constantly, add the rye flour. Separately serve pancakes (bread) and fresh milk (kvas).



Source: Belarusian cuisine. Miensk: Uradžaj, 1994. (Compilation. L.Dzierbičava, 1977.)
Translation: A.Weise, V.Cichanovič


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