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, . . 쳔 . , :

, , , , , , (Said 1993, p. xii).

, , . : ? ֳ , ? , , ?

 

, , . , (Anderson 1991, p. 3), . , 쳔 , . , (Lloyd 1993a). , 볳 . , , , - , , , . , , . , ?

. , , , , . , , , . , , . :

, , , , - , . , ( ) (Gellner 1983, p. 141).

, ݢ . , , , . , , , : , , , ( ) , (Anderson 1991, p. 11). , , , , .

, . , ó. , ó . ó , . , ó , . , , , ó (. Hegel 1975).

, , , . - . . -, , , , , 糳, ݢ? , , , , ?

, () . , , (Lloyd 1993a). , , , , , , . , , ?

, , . , , : (, , , . .) (Nairn 1977, pp. 347348). , 㳳 . , , , , :

(, , . .) , , , . . (Nairn 1977, pp. 348).

, , :

, , . , , , (Nairn 1977, pp. 348349).

, . ݢ , , , . , , :

, , . , , . , , (Nairn 1977, pp. 348).

, , , . , . , , 볳 , , ? , , , , . , :

- , , [ ] , , . , , , (Hobsbawm 1990; cited in Lloyd 1993a, p. 2).

糳 . . , , , ( ) . - , , . , - , , (Hegel 1910; Butler 1977, pp. 4064).

, , . , , , . , , , , , , , . / , 㳳 . , , .

, . , , ͳ ressentiment, . , , ngritude , , , , , , , (Said 1993, p. 275). , , , , . , , , 糳 . , :

, , , . , ngritude, , , (Said 1993, p. 276).

. , , . 㳳 , -. ó . , , , , ﳳ . , , .

, , , , (Deane 1990, p. 9). , , , , . , , . , . :

, , , , , , , (Lloyd 1993b, p. 5).

, , , , . , , . , , , , , .

 

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, , . , . , , . , , 㳳 . , , , , , , 㳳 (Guha, 1992).

. , , , , . , : , ᳢ , , , , (Fanon 1990, p. 105).

, . , , , , . , 볔 , , . , . , -. , , , : , , , . ; -, (Fanon 1990, p. 35). swaraj , abhaya, . , .

, , , , 糳 . , . - , , . , , , . , - , . , , , . , realpolitik, , , , , , . , , , , , , , , , , (Parry 1994, p. 179). , , , , , . , , -:

, 㳳, , /, (Parry 1994, p. 176).

, , , , , .

 

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, , , . , , . . , , . , , . , , , , . , , . , 쳔 (Anderson 1991, p. 67).

, , . . , , , .

, . , , , (Chatterjee 1993). , , .

, . , : , (Magna Carta) (Glorious Revolution), , 㳳 (Anderson 1991, p. 118). ϸ ݢ. , , , , - , (Spear 1990, p. 166). , , . , ( ) , (Spear 1990, p. 166). ó , , , , , ݢ, . , :

, , . , , , , , , (Anderson 1991, p. xiv).

, . , , , , () , , . , , . , , . , , . , , , ó, , (. Brewer 1980; Jameson 1990). , , , (Anderson 1991, p. 86). , . 18201977 (Cannadine 1983) , 1877 1914 . , . , , ᳸ (Cannadine 1983, p. 121). , . , , , , (Chatterjee 1993a, p. 42), , , mutatis mutandis, , , , (Deane 1990, p. 8).

, , , , 㳳 , la mission civilisatrice. (Todorov 1993). , , , . esprit gnral, , .

, : , , , . , , , , (. Todorov 1993, p. 189). : , , (. Todorov 1993, p. 190). , 糢 볳 (1993). , , , . , , : , , ? (pp. 4647).

, 쒳 , . , , , , / (. Todorov 1993, p. 254). , , , . , . :

, , . . ; , , , , , . , (1993, p. 257).

᳸ -. , , , , , . , , -- ﳳ , ? , (Cohn 1983). , . Nostromo , , , : , . 糳 (Said 1993, p. xxi).

, ? , , , (Chatterjee 1993a, p. 30). , : , , , , , (Chatterjee 1993a, p. 30). , 㳳. , , , 곔 (1993a, p. 39).

, , , , 쳔 , (Narayan 1971, p. xv). --- ---, 㳳 . , , . . , , , . , , . , , , (Lloyd 1993b, p. 9). , , . , . : , , (Narayan 1971, p. xviii).

, , . , , , . , , , (Gellner 1983, p. 5). , , 㳳, , 븢 , (. Lloyd 1993a). , , , , (. Dharampal 1971; Guha 1983b). , , --- , , . , , , , , (. Lloyd 1993a). , , , . , , : , , , , (Dharampal 1971, p. lx).

. , . , (Fanon 1990, p. 165). . ³ (1990, p. 165) (Gandhi) . , , , , / . , . , . , , , . ͳ, , . , (Soyinka 1996, p. 153). , , , , . , : , , , (Soyinka 1996, p. 134).

 

˳

Anderson 1991 Anderson, B. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, 2nd edn, Verso, London.

Brewer 1980 Brewer, A. Marxist Theories of Imperialism: A Critical Survey, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Butler 1977 Butler, C. G. W. F. Hegel, Twayne Publishers, Boston.

Cannadine 1983 Cannadine, D. The context, performance and meaning of ritual: the British monarchy and the invention of tradition, c. 18201977, in The Invention of Tradition, eds Eric Hobsbawm & Terence Ranger, Canto/Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 101164.

Chatterjee 1993a Chatterjee, P. Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse, 2nd edn, Zed Books, London.

Cohn 1993 Cohn, B. Representing authority in Victorian England, in The Invention of Tradition, eds Eric Hobsbawm & Terence Ranger, Canto/Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 165210.

Deane 1990 Deane, S. Introduction, in Nationalism, Colonialism and Literatura, A Field Day Co. Book, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 319.

Dharampal 1971 Dharampal, Civil Disobedience and Indian Tradition, With Some Early Nineteenth Century Documents, Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, Varanasi.

Fanon 1990 Fanon, F. The Wretched of the Earth, 3rd edn, trans. Constance Farrington, Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Gellner 1983 Gellner, E. Nations and Nationalism, Cornell University Press, Ithca.

Guha 1992 Guha, R. Discipline and mobilise, Subaltern Studies: Writings on South Asian History and Society, eds Partha Chatterjee & Gyanendra Pandey, vol. 7, pp. 64120.

Guha 1983b Guha, R. Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hegel 1910 Hegel, G. W. F. The Phenomenology of Mind, 3 vols, trans. J. B. Baille, Macmillan Co., London.

Hegel 1975 Hegel, G. W. F. Lectures on the Philosophy of World History: Introduction, trans. H. B. Nisbet, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hobsbawm 1990 Hobsbawm, E. J. Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Jameson 1990 Jameson, F. Modernism and imperialism, in Nationalism and Colonial Literature, ed. Seamus Deane, A Field Day Co. Book, Minnesota University Press, Minneapolis, pp. 4368.

Kristeva 1993 Kristeva, J. Nations Without Nationalism, trans. Leon S. Roudiez, Columbia University Press, New York.

Lloyd 1993a Lloyd, D. Nationalisms against the State: towards acritique of the anti-nationalist prejudice, in Re-examining and Reviewing the Philippine Progressive Vision, eds Forum for Philippine Alternatives, Diliman, Quelon City.

Lloyd 1993b Lloyd, D. Anomalous States: Irish Writing and the Post-Colonial Moment, Duke University Press, Durham.

Nairn 1977 Nairn, T. The Break-Up of Britain: Crisis and Neo-Nationalism, New Left Books, London.

Narayan 1971 Narayan, J. P. Foreword, in Civil Disobedience and Indian Tradition, Dharampal, pp. xvxx.

Parry 1994 Parry, B. Resistance theory/theorising resistance, or two cheers for nativism, in Colonial Discourse/Postcolonial Theory, eds Francis Barker et al., Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp. 172196.

Said 1993 Said, E. Culture and Imperialism, Chatto & Windus, London.

Soyinka 1996 Soyinka, W. The Open Sore of A Continent: A Personal Narrative of the Nigerian Crisis, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Spear 1990 Spear, P. A History of India: From the Sixteenth Century to the Twentieth Century, vol. 2, 5th edn, Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Todorov 1993 Todorov, T. On Human Diversity: Nationalism, Racism, and Exoticism in French Thought, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

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Leela Gandhi, Postcolonial Theory, Edinburg University Press, 1998