㳳

/


 9
9







.

ݡ:
Ͳ

 

, -ճ, : ? , ( - . .). ? [] ? .

? . .

: ? ... ? . (1)

 

, , . , , ݢ , ( 쳔) , .., , , , . , , , , ( , ), . (, ), , , ( !), , . - 쳳 , . - ( ), - .

, , .. , 볔 . 㳳 , , . . , 볢 1835 , , , , , .2 , ᳔: ( ) 3 ( ), ( ) . : , ... . , , .

, , ղ : , , , , Ң. () , , .

. , , .. ݢ. ݢ , . (, , , , ⸢ - , , , ). ࢔ ࢔ :

, . ݢ, , , . , . , , , . , , , , , 4.

:

糳 . ... ! , , , 5.

Ѹ , , , ղ . , ݢ . , -, , . , , , , : ϳ . , , , ( ϳ) . , , () , .

, , ݢ6. , , ( ) ( ), , 7.

ϳ , ( , , , ϳ : , ):

... , [] , ... , 볢 .

, . , ...

. ݢ, . ݢ , . , , , . ݢ , (\addiction ..), . , . ݢ . ݢ . , .

, , , ݢ . , , . , . , , . . , ݢ...8

ֳ ϳ : , , ݢ, . , .

, , . , (1776) (1787-88), , 1837 ( , , ݢ 쳔9) ݢ, . , . , . , ݢ, , , ? , (, , )? , ( , , ..) , , , ( ), , () - - ?

ϳ , , , 쳳 , ( -):

, , , , , , , , ( ..). . . , ... . [. ]10.

ϳ , :

ֳ , ? ? , , , ( ..), , ﳢ , , , , , , , , , , , , , ( ..) , , (), ; ย , , 11.

ϳ ( ), , -, . , .. , ( , !). ϳ, , (. fiction ), , , . , ( ), , , . , . 150 ϳ () , :

, ; , . ... , ... , . , , , , , , , 12.

, ( ) ϳ ( ) , , .

ݢ ( , ) . ϳ , . ݢ , , ; ( 13); , , (, , ) ( ) , . , , , .

࢔ . () , , : . , , , : ݢ , ᳢ , . , , , - , ( , -), , ᳢ , ( , , ?, , ), : , . , ... , 14.

ݢ , , :

, , , ; , , , .. , ; , , , , , , ݢ );

: , ( ) ( ), : (, );

, , ݢ : 糢 ( 80- . Lets keep America clean!; 90- ..)

, - . , , (, , : ( ) ()  (Foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds15) ). ( ). ( !), , , . , : . (.. , ) , , : Գ ϳ . , (, ͳ, , , , ), , -, (.. 16), . ( !) 븢 : ݢ. , ( , ) :

, . , , ... , , ... ? ... , , ... ֳ ? ... . , , 17.

, ݢ, , , , . , , , (. ) .

 

***

:

, , History ( ó, , 糳 ..)18.

( ), ݢ , , , , .

 

1 ϳ / Mason & Dixon // Henry Holt, NY, 1997: 651

2 Alexis de Tocqueville Democracy in America (1835-39) // Wordsworth Classics, 1998: 103-104

3 Herman Melville Bartleby, The Scrivener: A Story of Wall-Street // The Library of America, NY, 1984: 635-672

4 The Federalist Papers: #11 Alexander Hamilton // New American Library, 1961: 90-91

5 , 91

6 Tocqueville, 189

7 , 16-17

8 ϳ / Pynchon Gravitys Rainbow // Viking, NY, 1973: 721-722

9 ., , Malcolm Bradbury The Modern American Novel // Penguin, NY, 1992: 306-313

10 ϳ , 511

11 , 345

12 Ralph Waldo Emerson Self-Reliance in Essays and Lectures // The Library of America, NY: 274

13 , 261: Society everywhere is in conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members.

14 Bret Easton Ellis American Psycho // Picador, London, 1991: 128-132

15 Emerson, 265

16 . Emerson: A Modern Anthology, edited by A. Kazin and D. Aaron, NY, 1958: 375-376

17 Emerson American Scholar in Essays and Lectures, 70-71

18 .-. // , ., 1992: 151